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A.D.D.:- Attention Deficit Disorder. A neurological dysfunction which prevents the person from being able to process information sufficiently well enough for making good decisions.A.D.H.D.:-Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder:- combination of ADD and Hyperactivity

ABA: Applied Behavior Analysis

ABORTIFACIENT: an agent that can induce abortions.

ABSOLUTE PRESSURE: The total pressure within a vessel, pipe, etc., not offset by external atmospheric pressure.

ABSOLUTE: Chemical substance that is relatively free of impurities.

ABSORPTION: To take in and make a part of an existing whole. The penetration of a solid substance by a liquid as by capillary, osmotic, solvent or chemical action.

ACCESSORY OLFACTORY SYSTEM The sensory cells in the vomeronasal organ of the nose and their central connections in the brain that receive social and sexual information, in the form of pheromones, from other organisms of the same species. It is separate from the main olfactory system, which is involved in the sense of smell.

ACCOMMODATION: the ability of the eye to change focus from distance to near. This ability is gradually lost after age 40.

ACCOMMODATIVE DYSFUNCTION:- Inability of the eyes to focus properly.

ACCOMMODATIVE INSUFFICIENCY: loss of, or less than the age appropropriate amount of accommodation

ACETYLCHOLINe (as-e-till-KOH-lean) chemical agent that is released by nerve endings; its effects include cardiac inhibition, increase in blood vessel diameter, and other effects

ACGIH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. An organization of professionals in governmental agencies or educational institutions engaged in occupational safety and health programs. ACGIH develops and publishes recommended occupational exposure limits for chemical substances and physical agents.

ACHIEVEMENT TESTS Tests that are designed to measure learned skills and knowledge in academic areas such as reading, writing, mathematics computation, mathematics problem solving, listening, and speaking, as well as other areas. Individualized achievement tests are used by clinical psychologists, school psychologists, psychoeducational diagnosticians, and learning specialists to pinpoint areas of underachievement in the process of identifying learning disabilities and determining eligibility for special education services. Group administered achievement tests are used by schools in placement decisions as well as by institutions that rate and compare schools.

ACID: Any chemical which undergoes dissociation in water with the formation of hydrogen ions. Acids have a sour taste and may cause severe burns. They turn litmus paper red and have ph values of 0 to 6. Acids will neutralize bases or alkaline media. Acids will react with a base to form a salt.

ACIDOSIS: Condition of decreased alkalinity of the blood and tissues marked by sickly sweet breath, headache, nausea, vomiting, and visual disturbances; usually the result of excessive acid production.

ACNE (AK nee): a breakout of pimples that are derived from the oil glands. Acne may occur on the face, neck, shoulders or back. It often occurs during puberty, but can persist into adulthood.

ACRID: Irritating and bitter.

ACTIN A protein that is important in maintaining cell shape. It also acts together with myosin to produce cell movement.

ACTION LEVEL: Exposure level at which OSHA regulations to protect employees takes effect. Exposure at or above the action level is termed occupational exposure. Exposure below this level can also be harmful.

ACTIVE INGREDIENT: Ingredient of a product that actually does what the product is designed to do. The remaining ingredients may be inert.

ACUPUNCTURE:- A system of diagnosis and treatment which assumes that there are electrical currents which flow through definite paths through the body. It assumes that illness is caused by disruptions in the currents and corrects them by discharging excess electricity through copper pins inserted into parts of the body where excess electricity builds up. Alleviates pain and can increase immune response to balancing the flow of vital life energy throughout the body. It is a complete system of healing and provides effective treatment for numerous conditions, from the common cold and flues, to addiction and chronic fatigue syndrome. It is also effective as an adjunctive treatment for AIDS.

ACUTE EFFECT: Adverse effect on a human or animal body, that takes place soon after exposure.

ACUTE LETHALITY: Death of animals immediately or within 14 days after a single dose of or exposure to a toxic substance.

ACUTE TOXICITY: Adverse effects resulting from a single dose of or exposure to a substance.

ADA: Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990

ADD: Administration of Developmental Disabilities

ADDICTION:-A regular and almost uncontrollable compulsion to a certain behavior.

ADENOCARCINOMA: A tumor with glandular (secreting) elements.

ADENOMA an ordinarily benign (nonmalignant) tumor of skin tissue

ADENOSIS: Any disease of a gland.

ADHESION: A union of two surfaces that are normally separate.

ADNEXA: the accessory structures of the eye, including the eyelids, lacrimal gland, lacrimal ducts etc.

ADOLESCENCE:- The period in the development of a person when the child is changing into an adult.AEROBICS:- Type of exerciseAGORAPHOBIA Agoraphobia ("fear of the marketplace" in Greek) is an anxiety disorder characterized by intense fear of being caught or trapped in situations where no help is available should some incapacitating (e.g., losing control) or embarrassing (e.g., fainting) event occur in the presence of others. Agoraphobia can be brought on by repeated panic attacks and over time, if untreated, can lead to the fear of leaving one's house. Agoraphobia can also lead to depression.

ADRENAL GLANDS (a DREE nal glanz): two small triangular shaped organs that sit on top of each kidney and producenumerous hormones including androgens

ADSORB: Collect gas or liquid molecules on the surface of another material.

AEROSOL: Fine aerial suspension of liquid (mist, fog) or solid (dust, fume, smoke) particles small enough to be stable.

AFLATOXIN (af-lah-TOCK-sin) a toxic chemical produced by the Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus molds.

AGENT: Any substance, force, radiation, organism, or influence that affects the body. Effects may be beneficial or injurious.

AGONIST a drug that both binds to receptors and has an intrinsic effect

AIDED SCHOOL A voluntary school where salaries, equipment and housekeeping costs are funded by the local Education Council

AIR-LINE RESPIRATOR: A respirator that is connected to a compressed breathable air source by a hose of small diameter. The air is delivered continuously or intermittently in a sufficient volume to meet the wearer's breathing requirements.

AIR-PURIFYING RESPIRATOR: A respirator that uses chemicals to remove specific gases and vapors from the air or that uses a mechanical filter to remove particulate matter. An air-purifying respirator must only be used when there is sufficient oxygen to sustain life and the air contaminant level is below the concentration limits of the device.

AIT: Auditory IntegratioTraining (sometimes called AT for Auditory Training)

ALARA: Acronym for "as low as reasonably achievable."

ALK: automated lamellar kerato(removal of a part of the central corneal stroma) to effect a change on the refractive error

ALKALI: Any chemical substance which forms soluble soaps with fatty acids. Alkalis are also referred to as bases. May cause severe burns to the skin. Alkalis turn litmus paper blue and have ph values from 8 to 14.

ALKALOID: a nitrogenous, basic, and often medicinal, plant compound.

ALLERGEN: a compound that produces an allergic reaction.

ALLERGIC REACTION: Abnormal physiological response to a chemical stimuli by a sensitive person.

ALLERGIC RESPIRATORY REACTION: Labored breathing, coughing, or gasping caused by inhaling a particular substance.

ALLERGIC SKIN REACTION: Reddening, swelling and/or itching of the skin following contact with a substance to which a person has become sensitized due to previous skin contact or natural body conditions.

ALLERGY:- Unusual sensitivity to a substance, such as a food, pollen or a chemical, which causes the body to react badly.

ALOPECIA: (al-oh-PEE-she-ah) loss of hair

ALTERATIVE: a compound that alters body metabolism.

ALTERATIVE: A medicine or treatment which gradually induces a change, and restores healthy functions without insensible evacuations.

ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE (ALTS himerz DIZ ez): a dementia that represents the most severe form of cognitive dysfunction. Symptoms include confusion, memory loss, restlessness, problems with perception, and speech trouble. It is more common in women than men and tends to occur in advancing age.

AMA: American Medical Association

AMAUROSIS: partial or total blindness

AMBIENT: Usual or surrounding conditions.

AMBLYOPIA A partial or total loss of vision that is not due to abnormalities in the retina of the eye. Often called "lazy eye" it is a condition in which the best corrected vision in one eye is poorer than 20/20 (6/6) in the absence of any obvious structural anomalies or ocular disease - one eye has not learned to see properly. In young children, the child might be told to cover the good eye with a patch. Otherwise, visual training is required. Cannot be corrected with glasses or contact lenses.

AMENORRHEA (ah men oh REE ah): the medical name for the absence of periods, whether it is temporary or permanent.

AMENORRHEA: Absence of menstruation.

AMES TEST: Short term test commonly used for preliminary screening of chemicals to see if they cause mutations in a special type of bacterial cell.

Ametropia: refractive condition in which parallel rays do not focus on the retina; manifestation of refracive error

Amino acid (ah-ME- no) a component part of every protein, in which up to 20 different amino acids are strung together into polymer chains like beads in a necklace; the sequence of its amino acids determines a protein's structure and function; many proteins catalyze chemical reactions in the body.

Amnesia Amnesia is partial or complete loss of memory. Can be caused by head injury. Severe psychological trauma can lead to amnesia as a kind of dissociative disorder in which the individual experiences extensive but selective memory loss.

Ampulla (am PUL ah): the widest part of the fallopian tube where fertilization of the egg occurs.

Amsler grid: a hand held chart featuring equally spaced horizontal and vertical lines, usually white on black background, used to detect central visual field defects.

Anabolism the building up in the body of complex chemical compounds from smaller simpler compounds (e.g., proteins from amino acids); see catabolismcatabolism for comparison

Analeptic: a restorative.

ANALGESIA: Loss of sensitivity to pain.

Analgesics (an el JES icks): medications that relieve pain and are available over the counter or by prescription

Anaphylactoid resembling anaphylaxis, an immediate, transient allergic reaction

Anaphylaxis (an-ah-fuh-LACK-siss) an immediate allergic reaction to a pharmacologic agent

Anchor:- An action which has become associated with a mood. So doing the action brings on the mood.Ancillary Staff Non-teaching staff in schools, and unqualified classroom assistants.

Androgen (AN dro jen): any substance that produces masculinization, such as stosterone. Male hormones such as testosterone. They are produced in the testes in men, ovariesin women, and the adrenal glands in both men and women. Excess androgens in women can produce irregular menstruation, acne and facial hair growth.

Anemia (a KNEE me a): a decrease in the number and size of red blood cells. It can lead to a variety of symptoms, including fatigue, weakness, and headaches.

ANESTHETIC: Chemical that causes a total or partial loss of sensation. Overexposure to anesthetics can cause impaired judgment, dizziness, drowsiness, headache, unconsciousness, and even death.

ANHYDRIDE: Compound derived from other compound by removing elements composing water (hydrogen and oxygen).

ANHYDROUS: No water. Substance in which no water molecules are present as hydrate or as water crystallization.

ANISOMETROPIA: a condition of unequal refracive state for the two eyes

ANODYNE: an agent that relieves pain through reducing nerve excitability.

ANOREXIA NERVOSA Anorexia is a progressive eating disorder characterized by the inability to consistently maintain adequate body weight, an intense fear of becoming obese, and an unrealistic, negative body image. Despite an emaciated waif-like appearance, individuals with anorexia "feel fat" and continue to want to lose weight in order to feel more secure. In order to lose the weight, sufferers fast or eat very little. Anorexia can kill. Starvation causes the gradual deterioration of physical health and eventually can lead to a system-wide failure of the body and to death. Individuals with anorexia are often seen as perfectionist. They set unrealistically high expectations for themselves in many areas of their lives. These expectations often lead to stress, low self-esteem, and loss of control. Anorexic restrictive eating is seen as an attempt to feel "in control".

ANOREXIA: Loss of appetite.

ANOREXIANT a drug or substance that leads to anorexia or diminished appetite; appetite suppressant.

ANOSMIA: Loss of the sense of smell.

ANOXIA: Lack of oxygen from inspired air.

ANSI: American National Standards Institute. A privately funded organization that identifies industrial/public national consensus standards and coordinates their development.

ANTAGONIST a drug that impedes the action of another chemical substance in the body

ANTERIOR SEGMENT: the part of the eye anterior to the crystalline lens, including the cornea, anterior chamber, iris and ciliary body

ANTHELMINTIC: a preparation to rid the body of intestinal worms.

ANTHRAQUINONES: a ketonic tricyclic anthracenes with laxative action.

ANTI-: prefix for terms designating amelioration, relief, or removal.

ANTIACID: an agent to relieve excess stomach, blood or bowel acidity.

ANTIASTHMATIC: an agent to dilate bronchioles or break up mucus.

ANTIBIOTIC: an agent to inhibit growth of, or destroy, bacteria.

ANTICARCINOGEN: an agent to counteract cancer.

ANTICATARRHAL: an agent to counteract mucus formation.

ANTICOAGULANT (an-tee-ko-AG-you-lant) an agent that prevents coagulation or the transformation of a liquid into a semisolid mass (as in the coagulation of blood)

ANTI-DEPRESSANT:- A drug which takes away the feeling of being depressed.ANTIOXIDANTS: micronutrients which destroy or neutralize free radicals, molecules which have been implicated as one causative factor in the stimulation of abnormal cellular reproduction (cancer) and cellular destruction (aging).

antidepressant: an agent that counteracts mental depression.

anti-diarrheal: an agent to relieve diarrhea.

ANTIDOTE: Remedy to relieve, prevent, or counteract the effects of a poison.

antiemetic: an agent that relieves stomach sickness and vomiting.

antihyperlipidemic: an agent to reduce arterial plaques.

antilithic: an agent to removes stones; lithotryptic.

antioxidants (ant e AK se dents): substances that inhibit chemical reactions that can convert oxygen to substances that damage .

antipsychotic: see tranquilizer.

antipyretic: an agent to reduce fever; febrifuge.

antisecretor: an agent that dries the body tissues.

Antiseptic: A substance which prevents or retards putrefaction, or destroys, or protects from, putrefactive organisms. An agent for skin application to destroy bacteria.

Antisocial Personality - A personality style beginning in childhood that involves a behavior pattern that seriously violates the rights of others. Individuals with this disorder are irresponsible in their work, school, finances, and personal relationships.

Antisocial personality disorder A condition characterized by antisocial behavior (such as lying, stealing, and sometimes violence), lack of social emotions (guilt and shame), and impulsivity.

Antispasmodic: A medicine which prevents or allays spasms or convulsions. An agent to lessen muscle spasms; spasmolytic.

ANURIA: Absence or defective excretion of urine.

anus (A nus): the opening through which feces (bowel movements) leave the body. This is not considered part of the vulva or reproductive organs.

Anxiety disorders Anxiety disorders cause intense feelings of anxiety and tension when there is no real danger. The symptoms cause significant distress and interfere with daily activities. Sufferers of anxiety disorders usually take extreme measures to avoid situations that provoke anxiety. The physical signs of anxiety are restlessness, irritability, disturbed sleep, muscle aches and pains, gastrointestinal distress, and difficulty concentrating. Anxiety disorders are often accompanied by the symptoms of depression and can lead to chronic anxiety. See also generalized anxiety disorders, panic disorders, agoraphobia, panic attack, phobias, post-traumatic stress disorder, and school phobia.

Anxiety:- A deep feeling of worry.

aperient: a gentle laxative.

Aphakia: the absence of the eye's natural crystalline lens, usually after cataract removal.

Aphakic spectacles: thick, plus-powered eyeglasses that were once the standard optical correction following extraction of cataract. The glasses were cumbersome and greatly distorted peripheral vision. Today, an intraocular lens (IOL) is implanted in the eye after the cataract is removed to replace the focusing power of the natural lens eliminating the need for aphakic spectacles.

aphrodisiac: an agent to awaken sexual desires.

API: American Petroleum Institute is an organization of the petroleum industry.

APNEA: Breathing temporarily stopped.

apotosis (ap-oh-TOE-sis) programmed cell death in which the cell membrane and genetic material disintegrate

APPEARANCE: Physical visual state of a material.

Applied kinesiology can determine health imbalances in the body's organs and glands by identifying weaknesses in specific muscles. By stimulating or relaxing these key muscles, an applied kinesiologist can diagnose and resolve a variety of health problems.

AQUATIC TOXICITY (AQTX): Adverse effects on marine life that result from their being exposed to a toxic substance.

AQUEOUS: Water-based solution or suspension. Frequently, a gaseous compound dissolved in water.

ARC: Association of Retarded Citizens

area under the curve (AUC) a measure of how much of a drug reaches the bloodstream in a set period of time, usually 24 hours. AUC is calculated by plotting drug blood concentration at various times during a 24-hour or longer period and then measuring the area under the curve between 0 and 24 hours as shown in the figure to the right.

ARGYRIA: Local or generalized gray/blue-colored impregnation of the body tissue with silver.

ARI: Autism Research Institute

ARMD: age related macular degeneration: degeneration of the photoreceptors in the macular (central) region of the retina resulting in decreased central vision

Aroma Therapy:- A type of therapy using different aromas. Aromatherapy uses the essential oils extracted from plants and herbs to treat conditions ranging from infections and skin disorders to immune deficiencies and stress. Essential oils are widely used throughout Europe and a system of medical aromatherapy is currently practiced in France.

Aromatic: Having an agreeable odor

arrhythmia irregular heart beat

arthralgia (are-THRAL-gee-ah) severe joint pain

ARTICLE: Manufactured item specifically shaped or formed with function dependent on shape or design. Does not release or result in exposure to a hazardous material in normal use. Excluded from Hazard Communication Laws unless it gives off dust or fumes.

ASA: Autism Society of America

ASAF: Autism Society of America Foundation formed in 1996 to advance research that will yield new information about autism

ASBESTOSIS: Chronic lung disease caused by inhaling airborne asbestos fibers.

ASD: Autism Spectrum Disorder

ASPHYXIA: Lack of oxygen and interference with the oxygenation of the blood. Can lead to unconsciousness.

ASPHYXIANT: Vapor or gas which causes unconsciousness or death by suffocation. Most simple asphyxiants are harmful to the body only when they become so concentrated that they reduce oxygen in air (normally 21%) to dangerous levels (16% or lower). Asphyxiation is a potential hazard of working in confined spaces. Some chemicals like Carbon Dioxide function as chemical asphyxiants by reducing the blood's ability to carry oxygen.

ASPIRATION HAZARD: Danger of drawing material into the lungs leading to an inflammatory response.

Assembly Collective worship attended by all the school pupils every day as required by the 1944 Education Act. Matters of general information are also related at assembly.

Assymetrical:- Not symmetrical.Asthenopia: subjective symptoms or distress arisnig from the use of the eyes; as in eyestrain.

ASTHMA: Disease characterized by recurrent attacks of dyspnea, wheezing, and perhaps coughing caused by spasmodic contraction of the bronchiole in the lungs.

Astigmatic Keratotomy (AK): an incisional refractive surgical technique in which transverse incisions are made in the cornea to reduce or eliminate astigmatism

Astigmatism:- A problem with vision caused by the fact that the covering of the eye (the Cornea) has an irregular shape. Can usually be corrected with glasses or contact lenses. A refractive error caused by unequal refraction of light in different meridians, resulting in a distorted and blurred image.

ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials.

astringent: an agent that coagulates protein.

ASYMPTOMATIC: Neither causing nor exhibiting symptoms.

ATAXIA: Loss of muscular coordination.

atherogenic having the capacity to start or accelerate the process of atherogenesis or the formation of lipid deposits in the arteries

atherosclerosis The narrowing of an artery

ATMOSPHERE (atm.): Pressure measurement. One atmosphere (atm) = 14.7 lbs/sq in.

atopy (AT-oh-pee) an allergic reaction with strong family tendencies

ATP: Autism Tissue Program

atresia (a TREE zhah): the natural and continuous decline in the number of eggs in a woman's ovaries that actually begins before birth.

atrial fibrillation rapid irregular twitchings of the wall of the atrium (chamber) of the heart

atrophy (AT refee): a wasting away or loss of tissue. For example, the thinning and narrowing of the vaginal tissue after menopause.

ATROPHY: Wasting or diminution in the size of tissue, organs, or the entire body caused by lack of use.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) An attention-deficit disorder is a developmental disorder characterized by significant inattention, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity.

Audiologist/Audiology An audiologist is a health care professional specializing in the measurement of hearing and the correction of hearing impairments or hearing loss.

Audiology is a science dealing with hearing impairments, their detection and remediation.

Auditory Acuity:- The frequency and loudness of sound which the ears can hear.

Auditory Development:- The ability of the mind to interpret what the ears hear.

Auditory Discrimination:- The ability to distinguish between similar sounds.

Auditory Memory:- The ability to recall the sound of a noise just seen and to recognize it again.

Auditory Perception:- The ability of the mind to notice whthe ears hear.

Auditory Sequential Memory:- The ability to recall sequence of a series of sounds.

Auditory system The sensory cells in the ear and their central connections in the brain that are involved in the sense of hearing.

Auditory:- To do with hearingAuditory-Vision Integration:- The ability to write down a series of sounds into a corresponding series of dots and to recognize the sequence of a series of sounds from a sequence of dots.

Autism A childhood disorder which is characterized by withdrawal, self-stimulation, cognitive deficits and language disorders

AUTOIGNITION TEMPERATURE: Minimum temperature which a substance must be heated without application of flame or spark to cause substance to ignite. Materials should not be heated to greater than 80% of this temperature.

Aversive: Controversial behavior reduction approach

axon (AK-son) the long, filamentous part of a neuron (nerve cell) that carries nerve impulses away from the cell. The main, fiberlike extension of a neuron by which it sends information to target cells.

Ayurvedic Medicine Practiced in India for the past five thousand years, Ayurvedic medicine (meaning "science of life") is a comprehensive system of medicine that combines natural therapies with a highly personalized approach to the treatment of disease. Ayurvedic medicine places equal emphasis on body, mind, and spirit, and strives to restore the innate harmony of the individual.


Bach Flower Remedies:- Flower extracts used for various types of remedial treatment.

BAL: British Anti-Lewisite. A name for the drug dimecaprol--a treatment for toxic inhalations.

balsams: resinous mixtures containing cinnamates and benzoates.

Banding The allocation of pupils into a series of groups during the school year, on the basis of ability.

Bartholin's glands (BAR tho linz glans): two glands on opposite sides of the vaginal opening that lubricate the vagina and vulva by secreting a thin mucus.

basal body temperature (BA sel TEM per chur): the lowest body temperature which occurs during sleep. It is measured immediately upon wakening after a good night's rest.

BASE: Substances that (usually) liberate OH anions when dissolved in water. Bases react with acids to form salts and water. Bases have a pH greater than 7, turn litmus paper blue, and may be corrosive to human tissue. A strong base is called alkaline or caustic.

Basilar membrane A membrane in the cochlea, an organ of the inner ear, containing hair cells that respond to the vibrations produced by sound.

BAUME: Arbitrary scale of specific gravities; used to determine specific gravities and in graduation of hydrometers.

BCM: Blood-clotting mechanism effects.

BD: Behavioral Disorder

Behavior disorders/Emotional disturbance Many terms are used interchangably to classify children who exhibit extreme or unacceptable chronic behavior problems. These children lag behind their agemates in social development and are often isolated from others either because they withdraw from social contact or because they behave in an aggressive, hostile manner. Behavior disorders result from persistent negative social interactions between the child and the environment. Behavior disorders generally consist of four clusters of traits, including conduct disorders, anxiety-withdrawl, immaturity, and socialized aggression.

Behavior modification The application of conditioning techniques (rewards or punishments) to reduce or eliminate problematic behavior, or to teach people new responses.

Behavior Modification: Technique used to change behavior through reinforcement

Behavioral medicine The interdisciplinary field that studies behaviors related to the maintenance of health, the onset of illness, and the prevention of disease through the integration of behavioral and biomedical science.

Behavioral/Extended Optometric Program [OEP] Optometrist:-An optician who checks for many aspects of the entire visual process.

Behaviorism An approach to psychology that emphasizes the study of objectively observable behavior rather than inner mental experiences. Behaviorists stress the role of the environment as a fundamental shaper of human and animal behavior. A system of Psychology based on changing a person's attitude by changing his behavior.Binocular Coordination:-The ability to use the two eyes together.

BENIGN: Not recurrent or not tending to progress. Not cancerous.

beta-adrenergic antagonist (BAY-tah ah-dren-ER-jik) also known as beta-blockers, these drugs inhibit the action of certain types of neurons that stimulate beta receptors (see chemoreceptor)

beta-carbolines: tricyclic MAO inhibitors, hallucinogens.

beta-carotene (BAT ah KAR e teen): a form of vitamin A that can retard the development of plaque in arteries.

Bilious: Of or pertaining to the bile.

Binocular Efficiency:- The ease with which the eyes work together for comfortable vision at all distances.

Binocular Fixation:- The ability to look at an object with both eyes for a sustained period.

Binocular vision: the simultaneous use of the two eyes. Normal binocular vision yields a stereoscopic image and depth perception

bioavailability (bi-oh-ah-vale-ah-BILL-i-tee) the amount of drug that is available to the target tissue after administration; this may not be 100% due to degradation or alteration before reaching the target tissue

Bio-chemicals:- Chemicals produced by the body.Bio-circuits:- Electrical circuits in the body.Biofeedback:- A system of therapy which enables the person to objectively experience his own reactions and thereby to gain control over them. A technique for controlling bodily functions usually thought to be involuntary. The procedure utilizes electronic equipment to monitor continuously some feature of physiological response (e.g., heart rate or muscle tension) and convert the measurements into signals which a person can perceive easily.

BIODEGRADABLE: Organic material's capacity for decomposition as a result of attack by microorganisms.

Biofeedback training teaches a person how to change and control his or her body's vital functions through the use of simple electronic devices. Biofeedback is particularly useful for learning to reduce stress, eliminate headaches, control asthmatic attacks, recondition injured muscles, and relieve pain.

Biological Dentistry stresses the use of nontoxic restoration materials for dental work, and focuses on the unrecognized impact that dental toxins and hidden dental infections can have on overall health.

BIOLOGICAL EXPOSURE INDEXES (BEI): Numerical values based on procedures to determine the amount of a material absorbed into the human body by measuring it or its metabolic products in tissue, fluid or exhaled air.

BIOLOGICAL MONITORING: Periodic examination of body substances, such as blood or urine, to determine the extent of hazardous material absorption as opposed to mere exposure.

biopsy (BYE-op-see): the removal of a small piece of living tissue for examination to confirm or establish a diagnosis.

BIOPSY: Removal and examination of tissue from the living body.

Bipolar disorder/manic depression A serious mood disorder which involves extreme mood swings or highs (mania) and lows (depression); sometimes termed manic-depressive psychosis.

BODY BURDEN: Total amount of a toxic material that a person has ingested or inhaled from all sources over time.

Bodywork The term bodywork refers to therapies such as massage, deep tissue manipulation, movement awareness, and energy balancing, which are employed to improve the structure and functioning of the human body. Bodywork in all its forms helps to reduce pain, sooth injured muscles, stimulate blood and lymphatic circulation, and promote deep relaxation.

BOILING LIQUID EXPANDING VAPOR EXPLOSION (BLEVE): Condition in which liquids are excessively heated, which may result in the violent rupture of a container, and the rapid vaporization of the material. The possibility of a BLEVE increases with the volatility of the material.

BOILING POINT (BP): Temperature at which a liquid changes to a vapor state at a given pressure. Flammable materials with low boiling points generally present special fire hazards.

BONDING: Safety practice two objects are interconwith clamps and bare wire. This equalizes electrical potential between the objects and helps prevent static sparks that could ignite flammable materials.

BONDING: Feeling of attachment which a baby develops for the mother, particularly during nursing.

bone mineral densitometry (BMD) test (bon MIN e rel den se TOM e tree test): a test used to assess the density of bone. It is used to determine if a patient has osteoporosis.

Borderline personality A highly unstable personality style characterized by intense personal relationship problems. Individuals with borderline personality often suffer from depression, anxiety, and the fear of being abandoned. See also personality disorders.

Borderline Syndrome:- A complex psychological disorder in which the patient is not sick enough to be labeled as ill, but is nevertheless very dysfunctional.

BRADYCARDIA: A slow heartbeat with pulse rate below 60/minute.- a slowed heartbeat.

Brain-Waves:- Electric currents which are present in the brain.

breast buds (brest budz): the beginning of breast development when breast tissue begins to grow and nipples become slightly raised.

BRITISH THERMAL UNIT (BTU): Quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water 1 degree F at 39.2F, its temperature of maximum density.

bromocriptine (bro mo CRIP teen): a medication that has similar actions to dopamine. It is used to treat conditions such as hyperprolactinemia and Parkinson's disease.

BRONCHITIS: Inflammation of the bronchial tubes in the lungs.

BUFFER: Substance that reduces the change in hydrogen ion concentration (pH) that otherwise would be produced by adding acids or bases to a solution.

Bulimia An eating disorder characterized by binge eating (uncontrolled consumption of large amounts of food), attempts to compensate for food intake by purging (self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, restrictive eating, or diuretic or laxative abuse), and persistent overconcern with body weight and shape. Bulimia can be hidden from others, since individuals with bulimia often look like everyone else. Individuals with bulimia often have low self-esteem, negative self-thoughts, depressed feelings, and a sense of shame. They may be coping with identity questions, concerns about relationships, family problems, or past sexual abuse. Bulimia kills. Physical problems include dental problems, digestive tract problems, electrolyte imbalance, and swelling of the parotid glands.

BULK DENSITY: The mass (weight) per unit volume of a solid particulate material as it is normally packed, with voids between particulates containing air. Usually expressed as lb/ft3 or g/cm3.

BUNA: Trademark for synthetic rubber and rubberlike materials such as Buna-N (Nitrile) or Buna-S (Styrene).

Bursar A paid official in a college of school responsible for its financial and domestic administration.

Bursary Financial assistance notably for post-graduate degree students or in a Scottish university or school.


C: Centigrade, a unit of temperature.

C-5, C-10,...: used to denote number of carbon atoms.

calcium (KAL se um): a metallic element essential for the normal development and functioning of the body. An important constituent of bone and teeth.

Callahan Therapy:- A system of removing the trauma from memories by tapping on certain acupuncture spots.Campus Originally a term used to describe the site and buildings of a university, but now extended to any educational establishment.

CALORIE: Standard unit of heat. A calorie is the amount of heat required to raise 1 gram of water 1 degree C.

CAN: Cure Autism Now

CAP: Client Assistance Program administered by the Office of Special Education & Rehabilitative Services; provides information and assistance to individuals seeking services under the Rehabilitation Act

CARBON DIOXIDE: (CO2) heavy, colorless gas produced by combustion and decomposition of organic substances and as by-product of chemical processes. Will not burn, relatively non-toxic, and unreactive. Can cause oxygen deficient environments in large concentrations. Is useful as fire-extinguishing agent to block oxygen and smother fire.

CARBON MONOXIDE: CO) colorless, odorless, flammable, and very toxic gas produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon compounds and as a by-product of many chemical processes. A chemical asphyxiant, it reduces the blood's ability to carry oxygen.

CARCINOGEN: Substance or agent capable of causing or producing cancer in mammals.

carcinogen: a substance that predisposes cancer development.

CARCINOMA: Malignant tumor or cancer; a new growth made up of epithelial cells tending to grow rapidly, infiltrate other cells, and give rise to metastasis (spreading).

Carminative: A substance, especially an aromatic, which tends to expel wind from the alimentary canal, or to relieve colic, griping, or flatulence.

carminative: a substance to relieve the body of excess gas.

Carotid artery an artery leading to the brain. Blockage of a carotid artery causes stroke.

CARS: Childhood Autism Rating Scale (diagnostic tool)

CATALYST: Substance that modifies a chemical reaction (makes it faster or slower) without being consumed.

catalyst: a preparation that makes other remedies more effective.

catalyze (KAT-ah- lies) to greatly accelerate a chemical reaction; enzymes, for example, are protein catalysts that speed up biochemical reactions in the body; the enzyme is not consumed in the process

CATARACT: Loss of transparency of the crystalline lens of the eye or its capsule.

Cataract: an opacity or loss of transparency of the crystalline lens which results in loss of light transmission, image degradation and reduced vision A condition of the eye in which the lens becomes cloudy.

Cathartic: A medicine that promotes alvine discharges,the cathartics are more energetic and certain in action that the laxatives, which simply increase the tendency to alvine evacuation; and less powerful and irritaint that the drastic purges, which cause profuse, repeated, and watery evacuations.

cathartic: see purgative.

CAT-Scan:- Computer Aided Tomography: An X-ray procedure that uses a computer to produce detailed 3-dimensional or cross sectional pictures of the body. Also called CAT or CT scan. Depending on the part of the body scanned, this may involve drinking a substance to outline the digestive system (contrast), having contrast injected into the rectum, and/or an iodine contrast intravenously prior or during the scan.

CAUSTIC: See Alkali.

CBD:- Compulsive Behavior Disorder:- A behavioral disorder in which the person feels compelled to repeat actions which are not really necessary.

cc, cm3 Cubic centimeter.

CC: Closed cup. Identifies one of the methods used to measure flash points of flammable liquids.

CD:- Conduct Disorder:- Does not behave properly.

CDC: Center for Disease Control and Prevention

CEC: Council for Exceptional Children

CEILING: Maximum allowable human exposure limit for airborne substances; not to be exceeded even momentarily.

Cell therapy promotes physical regeneration through the injection of health cellular material into the body. It is used to stimulate healing, counteract the effects of aging, and treat a variety of degenerative diseases such as arthritis, Parkinson's disease, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Although not approved in the United States, cell therapy is used throughout Europe and in many countries worldwide.

CENTIMETER, cm: 1/100 meter. A cm = approximately 0.4 in.

CENTIPOISE: cgs unit of the measure of viscosity equal to 1/100 poise. Viscosity of water at 20C is approximately 1 centipose.

CERCLA: Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. The Superfund Law, Public Law PL 96-510, found at 40 CFR 300. The EPA has jurisdiction.

Cerebellum:- Part of the brain which coordinates movement.Cerebral cortex The outermost layer of neurons on the brain's hemispheres, often called simply "the cortex." It is responsible for all forms of conscious experience, including perception, emotion, thought, and planning, as well as coordination of motor activity.

Cerebrum Part of the forebrain of vertebrates, concerned wsensory processing and cooof activity. It consists of two nearly symmetrical halves, the hemispheres, whose outermost layer forms the cerebral cortex. Outermost part of the brain which deals with conscious and subconscious thought. Is made of two halves - the right hemisphere and the left hemisphere - which are joined by the corpus collosum.

Certificate of Pre-Vocational Education A one-year course, for people of sixteen and over with few examination passes, to prepare them for a future job, or more vocational training.

cervix (SER-viks): the lower part of the uterus that serves as the opening into the vaginal canal.

CES:- Cranial-Electrostimulation:- A system of therapy in which very-low-power electrical currents are passed through the head.Chelation Therapy is a safe and effective method for drawing toxins and metabolic wastes from the bloodstream. Chelating agents administered intravenously have been proven to increase blood flow and remove arterial plaque. Chelation therapy can help reverse atherosclerosis, can prevent heart attacks and strokes, and it used as an alternative to bypass surgery and angioplasty.

CFC: Chlorofluorocarbon. Associated with damage to the Earth's ozone layer.

CFR: Code of Federal Regulations. A collection of the regulations established by law.

cgs: Metric units of measure based upon centimeter, gram, and second.

CHAT: CHecklist for Autism in Toddlers (diagnostic tool)

CHELATIING AGENT: Chemical compound capable of forming multiple chemical bonds to a metal ion. Used to treat metal poisoning.

CHEMICAL CARTRIDGE RESPIRATOR: Respirator using various chemical substances to purify inhaled air of certain contaminative gases or vapors. Typically effective for concentrations no more than 10 times the TLV of the contaminant if it has warning properties (odor or irritation) below the TLV.

CHEMICAL FAMILY: Group of single elements or compounds with a common general name.

CHEMICAL FORMULA: Gives the number and kinds of atoms that comprise a molecule of a material.

CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN (CHP): Per 29 CFR 1910.1450, OSHA standard; "Occupational Exposures to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories." Effective 5/1/90. A written plan that includes specific work practices, standard operating procedures, equipment, engineering controls, and policies to ensure that employees are protected from hazardous exposure levels to all potentially hazardous chemicals in use in their work areas. The OSHA standard provides for training, employee access to information, medical consultations, examinations, hazard identification procedures, respirator use, and record keeping practices.

CHEMICAL NAME: Scientific designation of name that clearly identifies chemical for hazard evaluation purposes.

CHEMICAL PNEUMONITIS: Inflammation of the lungs caused by accumulation of fluids due to chemical irritation.

CHEMICAL REACTIVITY: Ability of a material to chemically change. Undesirable and dangerous effects such as heat, explosions, or the production of noxious substances can result.

CHEMICAL: Any element, chemical compound, or mixture of elements and/or compounds.

CHEMILUMINESCENCE: Emission of light during a non combustible chemical reaction.

chemoreceptor (KEE-mow-ree-SEP-tor) a molecular structure on the surface of a cell that is sensitive to chemical substances, such as epinephrine released by nerve cells

chemotaxis (kem-oh-TACK-sis) movement or response of cells to chemicals

Chemotherapy:- A schedule for curing cancer using x-ray irradiation to kill the cancerous cells and drugs.Childhood depression A mood disorder among children that resembles depression in adults, but shows up in very different ways in children. Children with depression may appear persistently sad, may no longer enjoy activities they normally enjoy, or they may frequently appear agitated, hyper or irritable. Depressed children may frequently complain of physical problems such as headaches and stomachaches and often have frequent absences from school or poor performance in school. They may appear bored or low in energy and frequently have problems concentrating. A major change in eating or sleeping patterns is a frequent sign of depression in children and adolescents. Significant depression probably exists in about 5 percent of children and adolescents in the general population. Children under stress, who experience loss, or who have learning disorders are at a higher risk for depression.

CHEMTREC: 24-hour toll free telephone number (800-424-9300), intended primarily for use by those who respond to chemical transportation emergencies. Established by the Chemical Manufacturer's Association.

Chiropractic Through adjustments of the spine and joints, chiropractors can influence the body's nervous system and natural defense mechanisms in order to alleviate pain and improve general health. Because of its effectiveness in treating back problems, headaches, and other injuries and traumas, chiropractic has become the second largest primary health care field in the world.

chlamydia (kle MID e a): a sexually transmitted infection caused by microscopic organisms called chlamydiae. It can damage the reproductive organs and result in pain and infertility.

CHLORACNE: Acne-like eruption caused by excessive contact with certain compounds.

cholagogue: an agent to promote flow of bile into small intestine.

cholesterol (koh LES ter ol): fatty substances that circulate in the bloodstream. Estrogen, progesterone and androgens are made from cholesterol. Excess cholesterol is associated with cardiovascular disease.

cholinergic parasympathomimetic agent (ko-lin-ER-jik pah-rah-sim-pah-tho- mee-MET-ik) a chemical substance that causes the release of choline (acetylcholine) from parasympathetic nerve endings

chorionic referring to the chorion or membrane enclosing the fetus

Chronic Condition:- A bad condition which does not go away.Chronic Dieting Chronic dieting is a very common eating disorder, especially among high school and college age women. Chronic dieting disrupts healthy eating patterns and involves negative self thoughts based upon external appearance. For chronic dieters, self-esteem is based upon looks, rather than being experienced as an internal feeling.

CHRONIC EFFECT: Adverse effect on a human or animal body with symptoms that develop slowly over a long period of time or that recur frequently.

CHRONIC EXPOSURE: Long-term contact with a substance.

CHRONIC TOXICITY: Adverse effects resulting from repeated doses of or exposures to a material over a relatively prolonged period of time. Ordinarily used to denote effects noted in experimental animals.

Cilia Short, hairlike projections from the surface of certain cells, such as hair cells.

climacteric (klye MACK ter ick): the period of time that encompasses the transition from the reproductive to the menopausal years.

Clinical neuropsychology The subfield of clinical psychology devoted to the diagnosis of brain disorders.

Clinical psychologists Mental health professionals who have earned a doctoral degree in psychology (either a Ph.D or a Psy.D -Doctor of Psychology) and have received extensive clinical training. They are trained in research, assessment, and the application of different psychological therapies. Clinical psychologists are concerned with the study, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental and emotional disorders and disabilities.

clitoris (CLIT or is): a small, firm round organ on top of the vulva that is composed of erectile tissue and blood vessels; this organ is involved in the normal female sexual response.

clonidine (KLON e deen): a medication that is used to treat high-blood pressure. It may also be helpful for menopausal hot flashes.

CNS: Central Nervous System, the brain and spinal cord.

Cochlea A snail-shaped, fluid-filled organ of the inner ear that contains the basilar membrane. It is responsible for translating the motion of the basilar membrane into nerve signals that lead to the perception of sound.

COEFFICIENT OF WATER / OIL DISTRIBUTION: Also called the partition coefficient, it is the ratio of the solubility of a chemical water to its solubility in oil. Used to indicate how easily human or other can absorb or store a material. Sometimes abbreviated Ko/w; may also be expressed as its logarithm, log Ko/w.

cognitive (KAG net iv): knowledge in its broadest sense. To have the ability to perceive, remember and to make judgements.

Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) A form of psychological therapy that focuses on directly modifying both cognitive processes and behavior. CBT draws heavily on cognitive theory and research, as well as more traditional techniques of behavior modification.

Cognitive disorder:- Something wrong with the ability to see/appreciate/understand (same root as the word recognize)Colon Therapy A health colon is essential for the absorption of vital nutrients and the natural elimination of bodily waste and toxins. Colon therapy promotes health colon function and can ease a range of problems from headache and backache to arthritis and hypertension.

Color blindness In most cases, the inability to distinguish red from green, or to see red and green in the same way as most people do, because of an abnormality in the red or green photoreceptors. About 7 percent of men are red-green color blind, compared to 0.4 percent of women.

Color Deficiency:- The inability to interpret different shades of color.Color Therapy:- A type of therapy using different colors.Color vision: the ability to perceive differences in color, including hue, saturation and brightness

COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS: Term used by NFPA and DOT to classify certain liquids that will burn, on the basis of flash points. NFPA and DOT generally define "combustible liquids" as having a flash point of 100F or higher. They do not ignite as easily as flammable liquids; however, they can be ignited under certain conditions, and must be handled with caution.

COMMON NAME: Designation for material other than chemical name, such as code, trade, brand, or generic name.

Comprehensive School Secondary school which admits children from a given catchment area regardless of ability.

COMPRESSED GAS: Material contained under pressure (dissolved gas, liquefied by compression or refrigeration).

Compulsions are repetitive behaviors intended to ward off harm to the sufferer of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Performing compulsive rituals gives the person with obsessive-compulsive disorder some temporary relief from the anxiety caused by obsessions. For example, compulsive hand-washing relieves the obsessive thought, "My hands have germs. I'm going to get sick and die."

Compulsive Overeating or Binge Eating Disorder Compulsive overeating is an eating disorder which involves binge eating without the purging behaviors typical in bulimia. Compulsive overeaters eat foods for emotional rather than nutritional reasons, often eating large quantities of "junk" food. Compulsive overeaters often turn to food for comfort when stressed or upset. Compulsive overeaters are often overweight, but not all people who are obese are compulsive overeaters.

Compulsive personality Personalities who are unusually tidy and even rigid in their daily behavior. Unlike people with obsessive-compulsive disorder, however, they do not find their behavior distressing or perceive their behavior as interfering with their lives.

CONCENTRATION: Relative amount of a substance when combined or mixed with other substances.

Conditioned Reflex:- A reaction which has become learned so well that it has become an automatic reflex.

CONDITIONS TO AVOID: Conditions encountered during handling or storage that could cause a substance to become unstable.

Conduct disorder A persistent pattern of behavior that involves violation of the rights of others (disobedience, destructiveness, jealousy, boisterousness, inadequate feelings of guilt). The pattern is seen at home, school, and in the community. Verbal and physical aggression are key features of conduct disorder. See also behavior disorders/emotional disturbance and oppositional-defiant disorder.

Cone cells Cone-shaped photoreceptor cells located in the retina, responsible for high-acuity vision and color vision in moderate or bright light. The three types of cone cells, loosely called blue, green, and red, are sensitive to different wavelengths of light; their interaction forms the basis of color vision.

CONFINED SPACE: Any area that has limited openings for entry and exit that would make escape difficult in an emergency, has a lack of ventilation, contains known and potential hazards, and is not intended nor designated for continuous human occupancy.

Conjunctiva: the thin transparent membrane overlying the sclera (white part of the eye) and inside surface of the eyelid

Conjunctivitis:- Inflammation of the thin, transparent covering of the eye, the conjunctiva.. May be caused by bacteria, virus, allergens or chemicals

CONTAINER: Any bag, barrel, bottle, box, can, cylinder, drum, reaction vessel, storage tank, or the like that contains a hazardous chemical. Under the Hazard Communication Standard pipes or piping systems, and engines, fuel tanks, or other operating systems in a vehicle are not considered to be containers.

Continuum: Used to describe a full range

Convergence deficiency:- Inability of the eyes to turn in together .Convergence/divergence: the turning of the eyes simultaneously inwards/outwards so that they are both "aimed" towards the object being viewed

Cordial: Anything that comforts, gladdens, and exhilarates.

Cornea: the clear front surface of the eye. The transparent "window" and primary refractive surface of the eye.

Corpus Collosum:- A bundle of nerve fibers which connect the two halves of the cerebrum.Cortex The cerebral cortex, the outermost layer of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain, responsible for all forms of conscious experience. Tightly-packed folds of nerve cells covering the cerebral hemispheres of the brain. Used for thought processes.

corpus luteum (KOR pus LOO tee um): the structure that forms from the ovulated follicle. It produces and secretes estrogen and progesterone.

CORROSION RATE: Expressed in inches per year; accompanied by temperature.

CORROSIVE: Liquid or solid that causes visible destruction or irreversible alterations in skin tissue at site of contact, or, in the case of leakage from its packaging, liquid that has severe corrosion rate on steel.

coumarins: bicyclic, aromatic molecules that antagonize vitamin K.

Counseling:- Therapy using discussion.

Craniosacral therapy manipulates the bones of the skull to treat a range of conditions, from headache and ear infection to stroke, spinal cord injury, and cerebral palsy. For decades various forms of cranial manipulation have been used to improve overall body functioning, and today craniosacral therapy is gaining acceptance by health professionals worldwide as a successful treatment modality.

Creativity:- The ability to think-up something new.Creche A centre where children under school age are looked after while their parents are at work. The creche must be registered and inspected, and may be a commercial enterprise, or provided free by employers.

CRITICAL PRESSURE / TEMPERATURE: Temperature above which a gas cannot be liquefied by pressure. The critical pressure is that pressure required to liquefy a gas at its critical temperature.

Cross-Crawl:-The ability to crawl using the right hand and left foot together and then the left hand and right foot together.Crossed - eyes:- see Strabismus.

CRYOGENIC: Relating to extremely low temperature as for refrigerated gases.

Crystalline Lens: The natural lens of the eye, located behind the pupil, which helps bring rays of light to focus on the retina. The original state of the lens is transparent, but the lens becomes cloudy with age.(see cataract)

cu ft, ft3: Cubic foot. Cu ft is more usual.

cu m, m3: Cubic meter. m3 is preferred.

CURETTAGE: Cleansing of a diseased surface.

Curriculum A course of study followed by a pupil or student.

CUTANEOUS: Pertaining to the skin.

CV: abbreviation for cardiovascular.

CYANOSIS: Dark purplish coloration of skin and mucous membrane caused by deficient oxygenation of the blood.

CyclGMP (cGMP) Cyclic guanosine monophosphate, a molecule that leads to the opening of channels or pores on the surfaceof photoreceptor cells in the dark; opening of the channel allows sodium ions to enter the cell. When the cell's rhodopsin absorbs light, the concentration of cGMP drops and the pores close.

cyst (sist): a fluid filled, sac-like structure.

cytotoxic (sigh-toe-TOCK-sick) destructive to cells


D&C (Dilation and Curettage) (d & c): a gynecological procedure in which the lining of the uterus is scraped out with a spoon-shaped instrument called a curet. Used to treat a variety of disorders including excessive menstrual bleeding.

DAN!: Defeat Autism Now!

danazol (DAN a zol): a hormone that is derived from androgens. It is most commonly used to treat the symptoms of endometriosis.

DANGEROUSLY REACTIVE MATERIAL: Material that can react by itself or with water/air producing hazardous condition.

Day Nursery A centre provided by private organisations of social services departments to care for children, for a fee, where parents need assistance. Private nurseries must be approved and inspected.

Day School A school where children do not board.

DD: Developmental Disabilities

decoction: a boiled extract, used for the preparation of roots.

DECOMPOSITION: Breakdown of a material or substance into parts or elements or simpler compounds.

DECONGESTANT: an agent to relieve nasal congestion.

DEFATTING: Removal of natural oils from the skin by fat-dissolving solvents or other chemicals.

DELIQUESCENT: Water soluble salts (usually powdered) absorb moisture from air and to soften or dissolve as a result.

DELUSIONS Gross misrepresentations of reality which are a common symptom of schizophrenia and other psychoses. Typical delusions include those of persecution, romance, grandeur, and control.

DEMULCENT: Material capable of soothing or protecting inflamed, irritated mucous membranes.

DEMULCENT: a compound that protects abraded tissues.

DEMULCENT: A substance, usually of a mucilaginous or oily nature, supposed to be capable of soothing an inflamed nervous membrane, or protecting it from irritation. Gum Arabic, glycerin, olive oil, etc., are demulcents.

DENIAL A defense mechanism in which a feeling or wish is blocked by the person because conscious admission of the thought or feeling would be too painful.

DENSITY: Ratio of weight to volume of a material, usually in grams per cubic centimeter.

depressant, CNS: a compound that reduces mental function.

DEPRESSANT: A substance that reduces a bodily functional activity or an instinctive desire, such as appetite.

Depressant:- A drug which makes a person feel "low".

Depression A mood disorder involving disturbances in emotion (excessive sadness), behavior (apathy and loss of interest in usual activities), cognition (distorted thoughts of hopelessness and low self-esteem), and body function (fatigue, loss of appetite). Symptoms extend into many parts of an individual's life and include lack of interest in daily activities, decreased motivation, feelings of worthlessness, and sometimes suicidal thoughts.

Depth perception: :-Stereopsis, the ability of the vision system to perceive the relative positions of objects in the visual field. The ability to visually inspect 3-dimensional objects, to accurately judge distances and to judge the spatial relationships between two objects.

DERMAL TOXICITY: Ratings corresponding to the following definitions are derived from data obtained from the test methods as described in 16 CFR 1500.40 and categories of toxicity as described in 16 CFR 1500.3.

DERMAL: Used on or applied to the skin.

DERMATITIS: Inflammation of the skin.

DESIGNATED AREA: An area of (or device within) a lab to be used for work with "select carcinogens", reproductive toxins, and other materials which have a high degree of acute toxicity. An administrative control intended to minimize the potential for employee exposure to hazardous chemicals.

DESIGNATED REPRESENTATIVE: Any individual or organization to whom an employee gives written authorization to exercise such employee's rights under the Hazard Communication Standard.

Detoxification Therapy Each year people are exposed to thousands of toxic chemicals and pollutants in the earth's atmosphere, water, food, and soil. These pollutants manifest themselves in a variety of symptoms, including decreased immune function, neurotoxicity, hormonal dysfunction, psychological disturbances, and even cancer. Detoxification therapy helps to rid the body of chemicals and pollutants and can facilitate a return to health.

Developmental Disorders Serious delays in the development of one or more areas of cognitive functioning.

DEXA machine (dechsa ma SHEN): a machine used to measure bone density of the hip, vertebrae and lower arm. It involves little radiation exposure and has good precision and accuracy.

dextrins: partial hydrolysis products of starch.

Diagnostician:- Someone who is trained to investigate a problem so as to identify it and determine the roots of the problem.

DIAPHORESIS: Perspiration, especially profuse.

diaphoretic: a compound that increases perspiration; sudorific.

Diaphoretic: A medicine or agent which promotes perspiration.

Diencephalon:- Part of the brain which facilitates emotions and regulates body functions.

Diet Conventional medicine has finally acknowledge the central role diet plays in a person's overall health. But achieving a good diet is not as simple as it sounds. Eating the right foods no longer insures proper health due to toxins contaminating the earth's food supply. Therefore, it is important to pay attention not only to what food to eat, but to where that food was grown or raised, and to what chemicals it might have been exposed to before it reaches the table.

DIKE: A barrier constructed to control or confine hazardous substances and prevent them from entering sewers, ditches, streams, or other flowing waters.

dilation (dy LAY shun) : widening - the widening of the cervix that is necessary to deliver a baby.

DILUTION VENTILATION: Air flow designed to dilute contaminants to acceptable levels.

Diopter (dy-ahp-tur) a unit measurement of the degree to which light converges or diverges; Diopters are used to define of lens's refractive power. Equal to the reciprocal of the focal length of a lens (in meters), e.g., a 2-diopter lens brings parallel rays of light to a focus at half a meter.

Diplopia: a condition in which a single object is perceived as two; also called double vision.

Disorder:- Something that is going wrong.Dissociative disorders Normal consciousness or identity is split or altered; often a result of an intense psychological trauma, as in psychogenic amnesia or multiple personalities.

DISTRIBUTOR: A business, other than a chemical manufacturer or importer, which supplies hazardous chemicals to other distributors or to employers.

diuretic (di ye RET ik): a medication that promotes increased outflow of urine. Used to treat hypertension and premenstrual fluid retention. An agent promoting urination.

Diuretic: Increasing the amount of urine secreted and discharged.

DMG: Dimethylglycine, a food substance resembling a vitamin

DNA library A collection of DNA from a tissue or organism. It is usually made available by cloning this DNA into bacterial plasmids.

dopamine (DO pah men): a neurotransmitter, a chemical that is secreted from one nerve cell to another allowing communication and transmission of impulses from cell to cell.

dorsal pertaining to the back

DRY CHEMICAL: Powdered fire extinguishing agent, usually composed of sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, etc.

DSM: Diagnostic Statistical Manual, produced by the American Psychiatric Association now in its fourth edition (1994)

DTT: Discrete Trial Teaching

Dura:- Strong membrane covering the brain.Dyslexia A disorder which produces an inability to read or spell accurately.

DUST: Solid particles suspended in air produced by some mechanical process, such as crushing, grinding, abrading, or blasting. Most dusts are an inhalation, fire, and dust explosion hazard.

Dyslexia A term used to describe the learning disability aknown as specific reading disability or reading disability. The disorder is characterized by impaired word recognition or decoding skills and readcomprehension difficulties. A problem with reading. The term is so widely used for such a wide range of reading dysfunctions that it is completely non-diagnostic.Eating disorders are very common mental health problems which have severe and direct effects on the physical health and well being of the sufferer. Eating disorders refer to a variety of disturbed eating behaviors, all associated with misusing food for emotional reasons. They range from chronic dieting to compulsive overeating and often involve behaviors ranging from bingeing and purging to self-starvation. Eating disorders are common among the college age population. The majority of individuals with eating disorders are women (about 90%) although men can also have eating disorders. The most frequent problem is chronic dieting, followed by compulsive overeating, bulimia, and anorexia nervosa.

dysmenorrhea (dis men oh REE ah): the medical name for painful periods, which can range from a dull pain in the back or abdomen to severe cramping.

dyspepsia: an impairment in digestion.

DYSPLASIA: An abnormality of development.

DYSPNEA: Sense of difficulty in breathing; shortness of breath.

DYSURIA: Difficult or painful urination.


ECG:- Electro CardioGram:- A machine for measuring the electrical activity of the heart.Educationally sub-normal Originally a descriptive term for children with an IQ below 70, who were arbitrarily sent to ESN(M) schools or below 50m who were sent to ESN(S) schools. This categorisation is no longer used.

Echolalia: The repetition or parroting of words or phrases

ED: Education Department

ED: Emotional Disorder

EDEMA (eh-DEE-mah) excess fluid buid up in cells or tissues Abnormal accumulation of clear, watery fluid in body tissue.

EDGAR: Eduction Department General Administrative Regulations

Edu-K:-A system of therapy based on Kinesiology.EEG biofeedback therapy, also known as neurofeedback, is a type of biofeedback therapy specifically utilizing brain-wave information. EEG biofeedback is most commonly used to improve the attentional control in children and adults with attention-deficit disorders, but researchers are studying the effects of EEG biofeedback therapy for a number of cognitive and mental health problems.

EEG Electroencephalography, the recording of brain waves by means of electrodes attached to the skull.

EEG:- Electro EncephaloGram:- A machine for measuring the electrical activity of the brain.Electrode A thin conductor, insulated except at its tip, that is placed either near or inside a nerve cell. It can pick up signals generated by the cell's electrical activity, or can be used to stimulate this activity.

effacement (e FACE ment) : the thinning of the cervix that is necessary to deliver a baby.

EFFECTIVE CONCENTRATION (EC50): Concentration of a material in water, a single dose which is expected to cause a biological effect on 50% of a group of test animals.

EHA: Education of all Handicapped Children Act:Now called IDEA - An extremely important law, reauthorized and amendent June 1997

electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG) (ee leck troh car dee O gram): the recording of the electrical activity of the myocardium (heart muscle).

ELECTROLYTE: Non-metallic substance that conducts electric current in solution by moving ions rather than electrons.

Electro-magnetic fields:- Type of radiation given out by most electrical devices. According to some, excessively-strong emissions from household devices can disturb a person's well-being.

elimination half-life the time it takes for the body to eliminate or breakdown half of a dose of a pharmacologic agent

embolism obstruction of a vessel

EMBOLISM: Obstruction of a blood vessel by a transported clot, a mass of bacteria, etc.

EMBRYO: Organism in the early stages of development before birth.

EMBRYOTOXIN: Material harmful to a developing embryo at a concentration that has no adverse effect on the pregnant female.

EMETIC: Agent that induces vomiting. Inducing to vomit, exciting the stomach to discharge its contents by the mouth. A medicine which causes vomiting.

emetogenic (eh-MET-oh-gen-ik) induces vomiting

Emmenagogue: A medicine that promotes the menstrual discharge.

Emmetropia (em-uh-TROP-pee-uh): refractive condition in which no refractive error is present and distant images are focused sharply on the retina with no need for corrective lenses.

emollient: an agent that smooths and protects the skin. An external something or soothing application to allay irritation, soreness, etc.

Emotional disturbance/Behavioral disorder Many terms are used interchangably to classify children who exhibit extreme or unacceptable chronic behavior problems. These children lag behind their agemates in social development and are often isolated from others either because they withdraw from social contact or because they behave in an aggressive, hostile manner. Behavior disorders result from persistent negative social interactions between the child and the environment. Behavior disorders generally consist of four clusters of traits, including conduct disorders, anxiety-withdrawl, immaturity, and socialized aggression.

EMPHYSEMA: Irreversibly diseased lung condition in which the alveolar walls have lost their resiliency, resulting in an excessive reduction in the lungs' capacity.

EMPLOYEE: A worker who may be exposed to hazardous chemicals under normal operating conditions or in foreseeable emergencies.

EMPLOYER: A person engaged in a business where chemicals are either used, distributed, or are produced for use or distribution, including a contractor or subcontractor.

endocrine system (EN do krin SIS tem): a system of the body that is made up of glands that secrete hormones.

endometriosis (en doh me tree OH sis): a condition, associated with painful periods and infertility, that occurs when fragments of the endometrium begin to grow outside the uterus in places such as the lining of the pelvic cavity, the fallopian tubes, the ovaries, the intestinal tract, or, les s commonly, in the vagina.

endometrium (en doh ME tree um): the lining of the uterus that is made up of blood vessels, special glands, and supporting tissue. This tissue is shed with each menses. The inner mucous membrane of the uterus

Endomorphines:- Chemicals produced by the brain which give a feeling of pleasure and take away feelings of pain.

endorphins (en DOR fins): opium-like chemicals made in the brain and many other parts of the body They may contribute to a person's sense of well-being. They are also involved in the regulation of reproduction.

ENDOTHERMIC: A chemical reaction that absorbs heat.

Energy Healing:- A system of treatment based on the assumption that the body is surrounded by fields of energy. It assumes that ill-health is caused by irregularities in the energy fields. Treatment comprises manipulating the energy fields.

Energy medicine uses diagnostic screening devices to measure the various electromagnetic frequencies emitted by the body in order to detect imbalances that may be causing present illness, or contributing to future disease. These disturbed energy flows can then be returned to their normal, health state through the input of electromagnetic signals that specifically counteract the affected frequencies to restore a normal energy balance within the body.

ENGINEERING CONTROLS: Systems that reduce potential hazards by isolating the worker from the hazard or by removing the hazard from the work environment. Methods include ventilation, isolation, and enclosure.

English as a Foreign Language The teaching of English to foreign students, in the UK or abroad.

English as a Second Language The teaching of English to foreigners residing in the UK.

Environmental medicine explores the role of dietary and environmental allergens in health and illness. Factors such as dust, molds, chemicals, and certain foods may cause allergic reactions that can dramatically influence diseases ranging from asthma and hay fever to headaches and depression.Virtually any chronic physical or mental illness may be improved by the care of a physician competent in this field.

enzyme (EN-zime) a protein catalyst that speeds chemical reactions in livingorganisms (see catalyze

Enzyme therapy can be an important first step in restoring health and well-being by helping to remedy digestive problems. Plant enzymes and pancreative enzymes are used in complementary ways to improve digestion and absorption of essential nutrients. Treatment includes enzyme supplements, coupled with a health diet that features whole foods.

EPIDEMIOLOGY: Science that deals with the study of disease in a general population.

epidemiology: the distribution of diseases or disorders through the population

epidemiology: the distribution of diseases or disorders through the population

EPIPHORA: Excessive flow of tears.

EPISTAXIS: Nosebleed.

Epithelium (ep-i-THEE-lee-um) the cellular layer without blood vessels covering free surfaces of the body such as the skin. A sheet of cells that covers the body surface or lines body cavities.

ERGONOMICS: Study of human characteristics for the appropriate design of living and work environments.

ERIC: Educational Resources Information Center, a computer database of educational information run by the CEC

ERYTHEMA: Abnormally red skin from capillary congestion.

esophagitis (E-sof-ah-ji-tis) inflammation of the esophagus

Esophoria: the position of the eyes in an over-converged position compensated by the external eye muscles so that the eyes do not appear turned inward

Esotropia:- see Strabismus, the position of the eyes in an over-converged position so that non-fixating eye is turned inward

estradiol (es tre DI ol): one of the many kinds of estrogens. It is the estrogen predominantly secreted by the ovary.

estrogen (ES tro jen): The class of hormones defined by its chemical structure and ability to promote specific functions such as changes in the reproductive tract and breast development.

ESY: Extended School Year

etiology (ee-tee-OL-oh-gee) the science of the causes and modes of operation of diseases

ETIOLOGY: All of the factors that contribute to the cause of a disease or an abnormal condition - the cause of a disorder

euphoriant: an agent to stimulate mental or physical pleasure.

EVAPORATION RATE: Rate at which a particular material will vaporize when compared to the rate of vaporization of a known material. Evaporation rate can be useful in evaluating the health and fire hazards of a material.

exfoliate (eks-FO-lee-ate) to shed cells from the epithelium layer of the skin or mucosa

Exophoria: the position of the eyes in an over-diverged position compensated by the external eye muscles so that the eyes do not appear turned outward.

Exotropia:- see Strabismus, the position of the eyes in an over diverged position so that non-fixating eye is turned outward

Expectorant:Tending to facilitate expectoration or to promote discharges of mucus, etc., from the lungs or throat. Preparations used to break up phlegm in lungs.

EXPLOSIVE: Material that produces a sudden, almost instantaneous release of pressure, gas, and heat when subjected to abrupt shock, pressure, or high temperature.

EXPOSURE LIMITS: Concentration in air of a chemical that is thought to be acceptable.

EXPOSURE OR EXPOSED: State of being open and vulnerable to a hazardous chemical by inhalation, ingestion, skin contact, absorption, or any other course; includes potential (accidental or possible) exposure.

EXTINGUISHING MEDIA: Fire extinguisher or extinguishing method appropriate for use on specific material.

Extracapsular Cataract Extraction (ECCE): a surgical procedure which removes the cataractous lens but leaves the rear lens capsule in place.

Extra-ocular/external ocular muscles: the six muscles that turn the eyes to position them appropriately for viewing objects in various fields of view

EYE IRRITATION: Ratings corresponding to the following definitions are derived from data obtained from test methods described in the 16 CFR 1500.42 graded pursuant to the Draize Scale for scoring ocular lesions and temporal reversibility criteria as set forth in NAS Publication 1138. 1.PRACTICALLY NON-IRRITATING: The undiluted product, when instilled into the eyes of rabbits produces no noticeable irritation, or slight transient conjunctiva irritation. (Average Draize score 0.00-15.0). 2.SLIGHTLY IRRITATING: The undiluted product, when instilled into the eyes of rabbits, produces slight to moderate conjunctiva irritation, slight corneal involvement, and/or slight iritis. (Average Draize score 15.1-25.0). 3.MODERATELY IRRITATING: The undiluted product, when instilled into the eyes of rabbits, produces moderate corneal involvement with or without severe iritis. (Average Draize score range 25.1-50.0). The effects clear within 21 days. 4.SEVERELY IRRITATING (OR CORROSIVE): The undiluted product, when instilled into the eyes of rabbits, produces severe corneal involvement with or without severe iritis. (Average Draize score range 50.1-110.0). The effects persist for 21 days or more.

Eye-Hand Coordination:- The ability of the eyes to accurately and efficiently guide the hands.Eye-Teaming:- The ability of the eyes to work together so that both eyes look at exactly the same point.


Fallopian tubes (fal LOH pee an toobs): two soft limp tubes that extend about five inches from the uterus to the ovaries. They connect the ovary and the uterus, provide a meeting place for egg and sperm, and help propel a fertilized egg to the uterus.

Family Therapy A therapeutic method which involves assessment and treatment with all immediate family members present. This therapy places emphasis on the family as a system rather than focusing on one person who might be deemed the identified patient. The whole family gets together and works on the problem together.Far-sightedness:- Hyperopia:- The person can see far, but closer objects appear blurred. Can usually be corrected with glasses or contact lenses.

FAPE: Free Appropriate Public Education

FASCICULATION: Muscular twitching.

Fasting is a low-cost, effective therapy for a wide range of conditions, including hypertension, headaches, allergies, and arthritis. By relieving the body of the task of digesting foods, fasting allows the system to rid itself of toxins while facilitating healing.

FATTY ACIDS: hydrolysis products of fats.

FC: Facilitated Communication

FEBRIFUGE: see antipyretic.

FEDERAL REGISTER: Daily publication that lists and discusses the regulations of Federal agencies.

FEEDBACK INHIBITION mechanism that maintains constant secretion of a product by exerting inhibitory control

FEEDBACK:- Realizing what happens to something you do something to.

FEINGOLD SYSTEM: a system for controlling ADHD/ADD through dietFETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME A condition affecting the children of mothers who consume large quantities of alcohol during pregnancy; it can involve cognitive delays, attentional difficulties, and physical and emotional disability. Deficits range from mild to severe, including growth retardation, brain damage, mental retardation, anomalies of the face, and heart failure.

FERPA: Family Education Rights and Privacy Act: Governs the privacy of a student's school records

fertilization (fert l e ZA shun): the union of the ovum (egg) and sperm.

FIBER: Basic form of matter, usually crystalline, with a high ratio of length to diameter.

fibroblastic (fi-bro-BLAS-tik) pertaining to fibroblasts, or connective tissue cells

fibroids (FIB roide): a benign tumor made up of fibrous and muscular tissue that can occur anywhere in the body. They are very commonly found in the uterus.

FIBROSIS: Formation of fibrous tissue, as in reparative or reactive process to particulates, in excess of amounts normally present in lung tissue walls. This reduces the oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange efficiency.

FIFRA: Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act requires that certain useful poisons, such as chemical pesticides, sold to the public contain labels that carry health hazard warnings to protect users. It is administered by EPA.

fim(sing., fimbriae) (FIM bree ee): fringed, feather-like extensions that constitute the opening of the fallopian tubes where the egg is picked up from the ovary.

FINES: Finely crushed or powdered material or fibers; especially those smaller than the average ia mix of various sizes.

FIRE (Flash) POINT: Lowest temperature at which liquid will produce sufficient vapor to flash near its surface and continue to burn.

FIRE DIAMOND: Symbol designed by the NFPA to give a quick number rating for the particular material's degree of health (blue), flammability (red), reactivity (yellow), and specific (white) hazard.

First School Local authority school usually catering for children 5 to 8 years old.

Fixation:- Ability of the eyes to look at an object without wandering away.Flotation Tank:- A tank full of a liquid which supports a person who lies in it. The tank is light and sound proof so that a person who lies in the tank floats in complete darkness and silence. Used for extreme relaxation.

FLAMMABLE AEROSOL: Product packaged in an aerosol container and can release a flammable material.

FLAMMABLE GAS: Gas that at ambient temperature and pressure forms a flammable mixture with air at a concentration of 13% by volume or less; or a gas that at ambient temperature and pressure forms a range of flammable mixtures with air greater than 12% by volume, regardless of the lower limit.

FLAMMABLE LIMITS: Minimum and maximum concentrations of flammable gas or vapor between which ignition occurs.

FLAMMABLE LIQUID: Liquid that gives off vapors that can be ignited at room temperature; liquid with flash point below 100F.

FLAMMABLE SOLID: Solid that will ignite readily and continue to burn or is liable to cause fires under ordinary conditions or during transportation through friction or retained heat from manufacturing or processing and that burns so vigorously and persistently as to create a serious transportation hazard.

FLAMMABLE: Defined by DOT and NFPA as a liquid with a flash point below 100 degrees F. Flammable liquids are: Class 1

FLASH BACK: Occurs when a trail of flammable material is ignited by a distant spark or ignition source. The flame then travels along the trail of the material back to its source.

FLASH POINT: Temperature at which a liquid will give off enough flammable vapor to ignite. There are several flash point test methods, and flash points may vary for the same material depending on the method used, so the test method is indicated when the flash point is given.

flavonoids: a class of tricyclic molecules.

Flower Remedies The emotions play a crucial role in the health of the physical body. Flower remedies directly address a person's emotional state in order to help facilitate both psychological and physiological well-being. By balancing negative feelings and stress, flower remedies can effectively remove the emotional barriers to health and recovery.

fMRI Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, a new method of scanning the brain's activity that needs no radioactive materials and produces images at a higher resolution than PET. It is based on differences in the magnetic resonance of certain atomic nuclei in areas of neuronal activity.

FOAM: Fire fighting material consisting of small bubbles of air, water, and concentrating agents. Foam will put out a fire by blanketing it, excluding air and blocking the escape of volatile vapor.

FOG: Visible suspension of fine droplets in a gas.

folic acid a member of the vitamin B complex involved in the formation of red blood cells

follicle (fol I kel): the structures in the ovary, each housing an egg. The cells that make up the follicle are responsible for estrogen and progesterone production.

follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (FOL-li-kl stim-ye-LA-ting HOR-moan): a hormone that is made and secreted from the pituitary gland. It stimulates follicular growth and estrogen production in the ovary.

FORESEEABLE EMERGENCY: Potential occurrence such as equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment which could result in an uncontrolled release of a hazardous chemical.

FORMULA: The scientific expression of the chemical composition of a material (e.g.,water H2O, sulfuric acid H2SO4, sulfur dioxide is SO2).

Fovea A depression in the central region of the vertebrate retina, containing closely packed cones. It is responsible for high-acuity vision. The part of the retina which produces the best-quality image. When looking at an object, its image should fall on the fovea.

Fragile X: Refers to the X chromosome; a genetic condition affecting cognitive, physical and sensory development

FREEZING POINT: Temperature at which a material changes its physical state from liquid to solid. This information is important because a frozen material may burst its container or the hazards could change.

FROSTBITE: Damage to tissue from exposure to extreme cold or contact with extremely cold liquids or solids.

FUGITIVE EMISSION: Gas, liquid, solid, vapor, fume, mist, fog, or dust that escapes from process equipment or a product.

FULL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Fully protective gear that keeps gases, vapor, liquid, and solids from any contact with skin and prevents them from being inhaled or ingested.

Full-spectrum lamps:- Lamps designed to emit light which has the same coloration as mid-day sunlight.

FUME: Airborne suspension consisting of minute solid particles arising from the heating of a solid. This heating is often accompanied by a chemical reaction where the particles react with oxygen to form an oxide.

Functional Visual Disability: the degree to which a visual error interferes with a person's ability to perform normal daily activities, such as reading, driving at night, or performing hobbies.

Further Education All post school education outside the university sector. Sometimes the term is restricted to apply only to vocational education.

Fusion:- Ability of the brain to make a single 3-D image from the two pictures produced by each eye separately.


g: Gram. Metric unit of weight.

Galactagogue: An agent that promotes the flow of milk.

galactorrhea (ge lak te REE a): release of milky secretions from the breast nipple.

ganglion (GANG-glee-on) pl. ganglia; any group of nerve cell bodies located in the peripheral nervous system

GANGRENE: Death of tissue combined with putrefaction.

GAS: Formless fluid that occupies the space of its enclosure. Can settle to the bottom or top of an enclosure when mixed with other materials. Can be changed to its liquid or solid state only by increased pressure and decreased temperature.

GASTRIC LAVAGE: Washing out of the stomach using a tube and fluids.

GASTRITIS: Irritation of lining of stomach which may be evident as stomach pains, vomiting, or diarrhea, etc.

GASTROENTERITIS: Inflammation of the stomach and intestine.

GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: Stomach and intestine as a functional unit.

GAVAGE: Feeding by means of a stomach tube.

General Certificate of Education Examination introduced in 1988 to replace O-level and GSE examinations.

GENERAL VENTILATION: Removal of contaminated air and its replacement with clean air from general workplace area as opposed to local ventilation, which is specific air changing in immediate air of a contamination source.

Generalized anxiety disorders An anxiety disorder which results in a continuous state of anxiety, lasting a month or more, marked by signs of motor tension, autonomic hyperactivity (a pounding heart), constant apprehension, and difficulties in concentration. Those who suffer from generalized anxiety disorders describe a chronic, exaggerated, unprovoked state of worry and tension, often accompanied by physical symptoms (trembling, twitching, headaches, irritability, sweating, hot flashes, nausea, lump in throat). Anxiety disorders, if untreated, often lead to depression.

GENERIC NAME: Designation or identification to identify a chemical by other than its chemical name.

GENETIC: Pertaining to or carried by genes. Hereditary.

genital warts (JEN e tel wortz): Lesions caused by human papillovirus in the genital tract that can be found on the vulva, vagina, and cervix.

Gerson Treatment:- A cfor the treatment of cancer, tuberculosis and other degenerative diseases based on an intensive diet which relieves the liver of its work in processing food to allow it to deal with the disease.

Gestalt Therapy:- A system of Psychology.

gestation (je STA shen): pregnancy

GI: abbreviation for gastro-int.

GINGIVITIS: Inflammation of the gums.

gland (gland) : an organ that makes and secretes hormones.

Glaucoma:- A condition of the eye in which the pressure inside the eyeball increase. It can lead to damage of the optic nerve causing severe or total loss of vision.

Glaucoma: characteristic optic nerve damage often associated with abnormally increased intraocular pressure and loss of visual field

glyco-: a prefix indicating the attatchment of a sugar to a molecule.

glycosides: sugar esters.

gonadotropic-releasing hormone (GnRH) (gon ah doh TROHP ick re LEES ing HOR moan): it is a hormone that is made and released from the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland. It controls the synthesis and secretion of FSH and LH.

gonadotropin (gon ah doh TROHP in): hormones elicited from the pituitary gland that stimulate the ovaries and testes. In humans, these hormones are FSH and LH.

gonadotropin a hormone that promotes gonad (sex gland) growth and function

gonorrhea (gon e REE e): a sexually transmitted diseased caused by Gonococcus bacteria. Signs include a cloudy discharge from the vagina, lower abdominal pain and fever. It causes tubal scarring, pain and infertility. It can be treated with antibiotics.

Governor An appointed member of the governing body of a school or other establishment, required by law in state schools.

GRAM/KILOGRAM: Expression of dose used in oral and dermal toxicology testing to indicate the grams of substance dosed per kilogram of animal body weight.

GRAM: Metric unit of mass weight. One U.S. ounce is about 28 grams and one pound is 454 grams.

GROUNDING: Safety practice to conduct electrical charge to ground, preventing igniting sparks of a material.

guar a naturally occuring carbohydrate gum used as a thickening agent in foods and in weight-loss preparations

Guided Imagery Using the power of the mind to evoke a positive physical response, guided imagery can reduce stress and slow heart rate, stimulate the immune system, and reduce pain. As part of the rapidly emerging field of mind/body medicine, guided imagery is being used in various medical settings, and, when properly taught, can also serve as a highly effective form of self-care.

gums: water swellable carbohydrate derivatives.

gynecologist (gin e KAL e jist): a doctor who specializes in the health care of women with a focus on reproductive


Hair cells The receptor cells found in the inner ear. Hair cells bear hair-like projections, cilia, which vibrate in response to sound or movement of the head. Movement of the cilia leads to the opening of ion channels in the cells and to the production of brief electrical signals.

half-life the time required for the decay of half a sample of a radioactive substance; may also apply to pharmacologic agents (see elimination half-life)

Hallucinations Abnormal auditory, olfactory, visual, gustatory, or kinesthetic perceptions which are common symptoms of schizophrenia; most common are the hallucinations which involve hearing voices or seeing objects that do not actually exist.

HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL: Any chemical whose presence or use is a physical hazard or a health hazard.

HAZARDOUS DECOMPOSITION: Breaking down or separation of a substance into its constituent parts, elements, or into simpler compounds accompanied by the release of heat, gas, or hazardous materials.

HAZARDOUS INGREDIENTS: Hazardous substances that make up a mixture.

HAZARDOUS MATERIAL: Any substance or mixture of substances having properties capable of producing adverse effects on the health or safety of a human being.

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM (HMIS): Developed by the NPCA to provide information on health, flammability, and reactivity hazards that are encountered in the workplace. A number is assigned to a material indicating the degree of hazard, from 0 for the least up to 4 for the most severe. Letters are used to designate personal protective equipment.

HAZARDOUS WASTE NUMBER: Identification number assigned by the EPA, per RCRA law, to identify and track hazardous wastes.

HCBS: Home and Community Based Services

HCN: hydrogen cyanide, a respiratory poison.

HEALTH HAZARD: Chemical from which acute or chronic health effects may occur in exposed individuals.

Health Maintenance Organization, HMO An HMO is a health plan that requires its participants to use only certain health providers and hospitals, usually those within its own network.

HEMATOPOIETIC SYSTEM: The blood-forming mechanism of the human body.

HEMATURIA: Presence of blood in the urine.

Hemianopsia: loss of one half of the visual field in one or both eyes

Hemispheres The two nearly symmetrical halves of the cerebrum. In most people, the left hemisphere is specialized for speech, writing, language, and calculation; the right hemisphere is specialized for spatial abilities and pattern recognition.

HEMOLYSIS: Separation of the hemoglobin from red blood corpuscles.

hemolytic: a compound capable of dissolving red blood corpuscles.

hemorragic: a compound that leads to internal bleeding.

hemorrhagic relating to bleeding

hemostatic: a compound that retards bleeding; styptic.

HEPATIC: Pertaining to the liver.

hepatic: an agent used in maintenance of liver function.

HEPATOTOXIN: A substance that causes injury to the liver.

Herbal medicine is the most ancient form of health care known to humankind. Herbs have been used in all cultures throughout history. Extensive scientific documentation now exists concerning their use for health conditions, including premenstrual syndrome, indigestion, insomnia, heart disease, cancer, and HIV.

Herbalist:- A specialist in remedies derived from herbs.Heterophorias:-Higher Education Education which is received in a university, or college of higher education and which usually leads to the award of a degree or diploma.

herpes simplex virus (HSV) (her PEZ sim plecks VI rus): the virus that causes an infection that produces recurrent blisters and ulcers. In general, HSV I infects the mouth and HSV II is a genital infection and thus a sexually transmitted disease.

HIGHLY TOXIC: The probable lethal dose of undiluted product to 50% of the test animals determined from dermal toxicity studies (LD50) is less than or equal to 200 milligrams per kilogram of body weight.

Hippocampus:- Part of the brain which seems to deal with long-term memory.Holisticism:- A style of diagnosis and treatment which takes the entire being into consideration.Homeopathy:- A system of medication in which the patient takes medicines comprising very low concentrations of medication. Homeopathy is a low-cost, nontoxic system of medicine used by hundreds of millions of people worldwide. It is particularly effective in treating chronic illnesses that fail to respond to conventional treatment, and is also a superb method of self-care for minor conditions such as the common cold and flu.

histopathologic the correspondence between the microscopic structure of cells and tissues and their functions

Homunculus An imaginary "little person" within the brain who was thought to perceive objects and events and to make decisions. Sometimes a representation of the body on the motor or somatosensory cortex.

hormone (HOR moan): a chemical substance that regulates the activity of certain cells and/or organs; derived from the Greek word meaning "to set in motion." It is made and secreted by glands.

hormone a chemical substance, often a protein, that regulates the actions of its target organs

human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) (HYOU man KO re on ic gon ah doh TROHPin): "the pregnancy hormone" that is secreted by the placenta. In the beginning of the pregnancy, it stimulates the corpus luteum to produce estrogen and progesterone which are necessary for a pregnancy to continue.

HYDROCARBON: Organic compound composed only of carbon and hydrogen. Petroleum,natural gas, and coal are the main sources of hydrocarbons for industry.

HYDROPHILIC: Materials having large molecules that absorb and retain water, causing them to swell and frequently to gel.

Hydrotherapy is the use of water, ice, steam, and hot and cold temperatures to maintain and restore health. Treatments include full body immersion, steam b, saunas, sitz baths, colonic irrigation, and the application of hot, and/or cold compresses. Hydrotherapy is effective for treating a wide range of conditions and can easily be used in the home as part of a self-care program.

HYGROSCOPIC: Readily adsorbing available moisture in any form.

hymen (HI men): a thin, delicate mucus membrane surrounding the vaginal opening.

hymenal tags (HI men al tagz): small flaps of skin that remain on the hymen when it has been torn or stretched.

Hyperactive:- The person is more active than normal and cannot sit still for long.

Hyperactivity Behavior marked by high levels of activity and restlessness. Such behavior is usually recognized as a problem once the child is expected to sit and attend for a significant period of time, as in a classroom environment. See also attention-deficit disorders.

HYPEREMIA: Congestion of blood in a body part.

HYPERGOLIC: Self-igniting upon contact of its components without a spark or external aid.

hypergonadotropic increased production of gonad-stimulating hormone from the anterior pituitary gland

hyperkeratosis (hi-per-ker-ah-TOE-sis) a disease resulting in the abnormal growth of the corneous (hornlike) layer of the skin

Hyperopia: farsightedness, long-sighted (UK): a refractive condition in which light entering the eye is focused virtually behind the retina, resulting in a blurred image. The person can see far, but closer objects appear blurredHyperthermia Fever is one of the body's most powerful defenses against disease. Hyperthermia artificially induces fever in the patient who is unable to mount a natural fever response to infection, inflammation, or other health challenges. It is used locally or over the entire body to treat diseases ranging from virtual infections to cancer, and is an effective self-help treatment for the common cold and flu.

hyperpigmentation abnormally increased pigmentation

hyperplasia (hi-per-PLAY-zee-ah) an abnormal increase in the number of normal cells in a tissue

Hypertropia:- see Strabismus.Hypnosis:- An altered state of the conscious mind in which the subconscious can be accessed directly.

Hypnotherapy is used to manage numerous medical and psychological problems. Hypnotic techniques can help a person stop smoking, overcome alcohol and substance abuse, and reduce overeating. Hypnotherapy is also effective in treating stress, sleep disorders, and mental health problems such as anxiety, fear, phobias, and depressions.

HYPOCALCEMIA: Calcium deficiency of the blood.

hypogonadism (high-po-GO-nad-izm) below normal gonad (sex gland) function

Hypomania An episode in which the individual experiences a mild form of mania (emotional highs, scattered thoughts, over-activity). Such an episode does not markedly impair an individual's social and vocational functioning, and does not necessarily indicate the presence of bipolar disorder.

hypomenorrhea (high poh men ah REE ah): the medical name for short or scanty periods.

hypotensive: an agent to reduce blood pressure.

hypothalamus (high poh THAL ah mus): a region at the base of the brain that is involved in the control of many functions including reproduction, appetite, water balance, and body temperature.

hypothalamus an area of the forebrain which regulates pituitary glandpituitary secretion among many other functions

Hypothesis:- suggestion for an answer to a problem.Hypotropia:- see Strabismus.Hypoxia: a deficiency of oxygen supply to a tissue

hypothyroidism (high po THI roi dizm): a condition caused by decreased thyroid gland activity. Symptoms include weight gain, sluggishness, dryness of the skin, constipation. If severe, it can affect the metabolism of the body.

hypoxemia (high-POCK-see-me--ah) below normal oxygen content in arterial blood

HYPOXIA: Insufficient oxygen, especially applied to body cells.

hysterectomy (hiss the RECK toh me): the surgical removal of the uterus, usually with the cervix.


I&R: Information and Referral A service which ASA provides at extension 150!

IBI: Intensive Behavioral Intervention

ibuprofen (eye byu PRO fen): an antiprostaglandin drug that are used to treat a wide variety of pain including uterine cramping. They are sold under such brand names as Advil, Naprosyn, and Motrin.

IDEA: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1990 (P.L. 102-119), amended by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Amendments Act of 1997. (Previously called EHA-see above)

idiopathic (id-ee-oh-PATH-ik) describing a disease of unknown cause

IEP: Individualized Education Program: document which describes the agreed upon services to be provided by the school to a child with a disability (ages 3-21)

IFSP: Individualized Family Service Plan: similar to an IEP (ages birth-3)

IGNITION TEMPERATURE: Lowest temperature at which a combustible material will catch fire in air and will continue to burn independently of the source of heat when heated.

IHP: Individualized Habilitation Program: Often similar to an IEP for adults with disabilities

Imaging:- Consciously and willfully bringing up pictures to the mind's eye.Immune System:- The bodies system for protecting itself from infection, etc.Independent Practice Association, IPA An IPA is an association of physicians and other health care providers, including hospitals, who contract with an HMO to provide services to enrollees, but usally still see non-HMO patients and patients from other HMOs.

IMMEDIATE USE: The hazardous chemical will be under the control of and used only by the person who transfers it from a labeled container and only within the work shift in which it is transferred.

IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND HEALTH (IDLH): Maximum concentration from which one could escape within 30 minutes without any escape-impairing symptoms or any irreversible health effects.

immunodeficiency a condition resulting from a defective immune system

IMPERVIOUS: Material that does not allow another substance to pass through or penetrate it.

IMPORTER: First business with employees within the Customs Territory of U.S. which receives hazardous chemicals produced in other countries for the purpose of supplying them to distributors or employers within U.S.

in vitro (in VEE-troh) from the Latin meaning in glass; in an artificial environment such as a test tube or the equivalent laboratory apparatus

Inclusion: Placement of a child with a disability with his non-disabled peers; mainstreaming

Inclusion: taking children out of segregated settings and placing them in regular education classrooms with supports

INCOMPATIBLE: Materials which could cause dangerous reactions from direct contact with one another.

Independent School A school which receives no state assistance but is financed by fees. All such schools must be registered.

INERT INGREDIENTS: Anything other than the active ingredient in a product; not having active properties.

Infants School A school which caters for children from 5 to 7 years of age. Often associated with a junior school to which the children will progress.

infiltrate (in-FILL-trait) material deposited as a result of filtration

INFLAMMABLE: Capable of being easily set on fire and continuing to burn, especially violently.

INFLAMMATION: Series of reactions produced in tissue by an irritant, injury, or infection. Characterized by swelling and redness caused by an influx of blood and fluids.

infusion: a water extract; a tea.

INGESTION: Taking in of a substance through the mouth.

INHALATION: Breathing in of a substance in the form of a gas, vapor, fume, mist, or dust.

INHIBITOR: Chemical which is added to another substance to prevent an unwanted chemical change from occurring.

INORGANIC MATERIALS: Compounds derived from other than vegetable or animal sources; generally do not contain carbon atoms.

INSOLUBLE: Incapable of being dissin a liquid.

Intelligence An inferred characteristic of an individual, usually defined as the ability to profit from experience, acquire knowledge, think abstractly, or adapt to changes in the environment.

Intelligence quotient (IQ) A measure of intelligence derived from norms provided by standardized intelligence tests.

internist (IN ter nest): a general medical doctor who serto diagnose and treat many medical problemsand will refer to specialists when necessary.

INTERSTITIAL FIBROSIS: Scarring of the lungs.

Intraocular lens (IOL): a plastic lens that is surgically implanted to replace the focusing power of the natural lens of the eye following cataract extraction. There are numerous styles of IOLs, including foldable IOLs and multifocal IOLs.

Intraocular pressure: the internal fluid pressure within the eye created by the continual production and drainage of aqueous fluid in the anterior chamber.

introitus (INTRO itus): the vaginal opening, through which can flow menstrual blood and vaginal secretions.

Ion channel Channel in a cell's surface membrane that controls the flow of ions into the cell. Usually specific for certain ions like sodium or potassium.

Ionizer:-Machine for releasing relaxing ions into the room.Ions Atoms or small molecules that carry an electric charge. The movement of ions across cell membranes leads to electrical signalling in the brain.

IPCS:- Interpersonal Cognitive Skills.

IPP: Individual Program Plan

IQ:- Intelligence Quotient:- A measure of intelligence based on replies to batteries of questions.

IRCA: Indiana Resource Center for Autism

IRIDAL: Pertaining to the iris of the eye.

IRIDOCYCLITIS: Inflammation of both the iris and the ciliary body of the eye.

Iris pigmented tissue that lies behind the cornea that gives color to the eye (e.g., blue eyes) and controls the amount of light entering the eye by varying the size of the black pupillary opening.

Irridology:-A system of diagnosis based on the assumption that each part of the iris of the eyes corresponds to each part of the entire body. Juice therapy uses the fresh, raw juice of vegetables and fruits to nourish and replenish the body. Used as nutritional support during periods of stress and illness, juice therapy can also be used as part of a comprehensive health maintenance plan.

Irritant: A poison that produces inflammation without any corrosive action upon the tissues.

IRRITANT: Substance which, by contact in sufficient concentration for a sufficient period of time, will cause an inflammatory response or reaction of the eye, skin, or respiratory system.

IRWE: Impairment-Related Work Expense: Employment related programs for disabled adults

ISOMERS: Compounds that have same molecular weight and atomic composition but differ in molecular structure.

ITP: Individual Transition Plan (ages 16-21)


JADD: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

JAUNDICE: Yellowish discoloration of tissue, whites of the eyes, and bodily fluids with bile pigment caused by any of several pathological conditions that interrupt the liver's normal production and discharge of bile.

Junior School A school which caters for 7 to 11 year old children.


Kegel exercises (KEY gl Ek ser sizez): a system of exercises in which a woman strengthens the internal muscles of the pelvis.

Keratitis: inflammation of the cornea

KETOSIS: Condition marked by excessive production or accumulation of ketone bodies in the body caused by disturbed carbohydrate metabolism.

KILOGRAM: Metric unit of weight; about 2.2 pounds.

Kinesiology:- A system of treatment based on muscle-testing for yes/no answers.L

LABEL: Any written, printed, or graphic sign or symbol displayed on or affixed to containers of hazardous chemicals. Should contain identity of the material, appropriate hazard warnings, and name and address of the chemical manufacturer, importer, or other responsible party.

labia majora (LAY be uh MUH jo ruh): the large lips of the vulva that extend from the mons pubis down either side of the vulva.

labia minora (LAY be uh My NOR uh): the smaller, fleshy inner lips of the vulva that are closer to the vaginal opening than the labia majora.

LABORATORY SCALE (ACTIVITY): The work involves containers of substances used for reactions and transfers that are designed for easy and safe handling by one person. Workplaces that produce commercial quantities of materials are excluded from the definition of "Laboratory."

LACRIMATION: Secretion and discharge of tears.

LACRIMATOR: Material that produces tears.

Lactation (lak TA shun): secretion of milk by the mammary glands of the breast, which begins after pregnancy.

Landau-Kleffner Syndrome (LKS): A rare disorder marked by sudden loss of language between the ages of 3-7, after a period of normal development. Individuals with LKS are also characterized by an abnormal EEG.

LANDFILL: Disposal of trash and waste products at controlled location that is sealed and buried under earth.

Language disorder A lag in the ability to understand or express ideas that puts linguistic skill significantly behind an individual's development in other areas.

Language Laboratory A specially planned room where languages are taught with the aid of tape recordings and sometimes interactive videos.

Laser assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK): laser assisted in situ keratomileusis, or LASIK, combines excimer laser PRK with elements of ALK used to reduce refractive error

LATENCY PERIOD: Time that elapses between exposure and the first manifestations of disease or illness.

Laterality:- Being same-side-dominant. E.g. someone who is right-handed should be right-eye dominant and right-ear dominant.Lazy-eye:- Ambylopia:- one eye has not learned to see properly. In young children, the child might be told to cover the good eye with a patch. Otherwise, visual training is required. Cannot be corrected with glasses or contact lenses.

LAVAGE: Washing of a hollow organ, such as the stomach, using a tube and fluids.

laxative: an aid to solid waste elimination.

LD:- Learning Disabled/Learning Dysfunction:- Indicates something is wrong with the person's ability to learn.

LEA: Local Education Agency

Learning Difficulty Significantly greater difficulty in learning than experienced by the majority of children of the same age. It may be caused by a disability which prevents or hinders a child from using educational facilities generally provided in schools within the area of the local authority concerned.

Learning disabilities A difficulty in the performance of a specific mental skill, such as reading or arithmetic; sometimes linked to perceptual or memory problems.

Learning specialist Learning specialists are usually professionals with masters or doctorate degrees in Learning Disabilities or Special Education. Learning specialists test individuals to determine whether or not they have specific learning disabilities and provide remedial assistance to help individuals overcome their deficits.

LESION: Abnormal change, injury, or damage to tissue or to an organ.

LEUKEMIA: Progressive, malignant disease of the blood forming organs.

LGN Lateral Geniculate Nucleus, a part of the thalamus that relays signals from the eye to the visual cortex. It also receives signals back from the cortex.

Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor, LCPC A Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor is a mental health professional trained in the application of psychotherapy techniques. The main focus of their work is to improvement the quality of life and life choices a person makes. A major goal is broadening possible decisions and helping to determine new alternatives for old behaviors and feelings which may have caused emotional discomfort.

Light and Sound:- A system for controlling the frequency of brainwaves using pulsed light and sound.

Light Therapy Light and color have been valued throughout history as sources of healing. Today, the therapeutic applications of light and color are being investigated in major hospitals and research centers worldwide. Results indicate that full-spectrum, ultraviolet, colored, and laser light can have therapeutic value for a range of conditfrom chronic pain and depression to immune disorders and cancer.

LIPID GRANULOMA: Mass of chronically inflamed tissue that is usually infective.

LIPID PNEUMONIA: Chronic condition caused by the aspiration of oily substances into the lungs.

lipoma (li PO ma): a benign tumor of fatty tissue.

Literacy:- The ability to read and write.Long-Term Memory:-Information remembered even after a long time.

lithotriptic: see antili.

LOCAL EFFECTS: Toxic or irritation effects which occur at the site of contact with a chemical or substance.

LOCAL VENTILATION: Drawing off and replacement of contaminated air directly from its source.

Look-Say:- A method of teaching to read based on teaching the child to recognize the appearance of whole words.

LOWER EXPLOSIVE (FLAMMABLE) LIMIT (LEL): Lowest concentration (lowest percentage of the substance in air) that will produce a flash of fire when an ignition source (heat, electric arc, or flame) is present.

LRE: Least Restrictive Environment: part of IDEA

luteinizing hormone (LH) (LOO tee in I zing HOR moan): a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that stimulates ovulation and is important in maintaining pregnancy.


MAAP: A Newsletter for Families of More Advanced Individuals with Autism, Asperger's Syndrome, and Pervasive Developmental Disorders

Macrobiotics:- A type of therapy using a special diet based on whole grains.

Macular edema: a collection of fluid in and under the macular portion of the retina

Magnetic Field Therapy Electromagnetic energy and the human body have a valid and important interrelationship. Magnetic field therapy can be used in both diagnosing and treating physical and emotional disorders. This process has been recognized to relieve symptoms and may, in some cases, retard the cycle of new disease. Magnets and electromagnetic therapy devices are now being used to eliminate pain, facilitate the healing of broken bones, and counter the effects of stress.

Mainstreaming: Placement of a child in a classroom with non-disabled peers versus a separate classroom

MALAISE: Feeling of general discomfort, distress, or uneasiness.

mammogram (MAM e gram): a special x-ray of the breast used to screen for breast cancer.

Managed Care is a method of financing and delivering health care for a set fee using a network of physicians and other health care providers who have agreed to the set fees.

Managed Care Organization, MCO A MCO is a health organization that finances and delivers health care using a specific provider network and specific services and products.

Mania A symptom of bipolar disorder characterized by exaggerated excitement, physical overactivity, and profuse and rapidly changing ideas (scattered or tangential thoughts). A person in a manic state feels an emotional high and generally follows their impulses.

MAO: monoamine oxidase, a major brain detoxification enzyme.

Marital Therapy A treatment in which a therapist consults with both the husband and wife to help them learn to communicate better, to provide more support to each other, and to understand their interactions.

mast cell a type of granulated cell found in connective tissue

MBD:- Minimal Brain Dysfunction/DamageMedicaid is a federal program (Title XIX of the Social Security Act) that pays for health services for certain categories of people who are poor, elderly, blind, disabled, or who are enrolled in certain programs, including Medicaid Waivers. Medicaid also covers children whos families receive assistance.

median time to elimination the time it takes one half of a drug to be eliminated from the body

mediate (MEE-dee-ate) accomplished indirectly

Medicare is a federally funded program (Title XX of the Social Security Act) which pays for health care for the elderly and for adults who are disabled.

Meditation is a see and simple way to balance a person's physical, emotional, and mental states. It is easily learned and has been used as an aid in treating stress and pain management. It has also been employed as part of an overall treatment for other conditions, including hypertension and heart disease.

medulla oblongata (muh-DULL-ah ob-long-GAH-tah) the part of the brainstem located just above the spinal cord; means "rather long and narrow;" acting as kind of a "telephone exchange," the medulla oblongata links the higher brain centers with several senses.

Medulla:- (Brain Stem) Part of the brain which maintains breathing, heart-rate and other vital systems.MEG Magnetoencephalography, a technique for recording electrical signals from the brain based on changes in magnetic fields.

MELTING POINT:Temperature at which a solid substance changes to a liquid state. For mixtures, a melting range may be given.

menopause (MEN oh paus): the normal cessation (stopping) of the monthly flow which occurs once all of the follicles ave been depleted from the ovary.

menorrhagia (men oh RAY jee ah): the medical name for periods that are unusually heavy or prolonged.

menses (MEN seez): the Latin word meaning month. It is another word for menstruation.

menstrual phase (MEN stru al FAZ) : the time of the menstrual cycle when a woman is having a period, when the lining of the uterus is shed.

menstruation (MEN stru WAY shun): the process by which the lining of the uterus is shed as menstrual bleeding; this intricate process usually takes place once a month, except during pregnancy.

METABOLISM: Chemical and physical processes whereby the body functions.

metaphase (MEH-tah-faze) the second stage of mitosis in which the chromosomes are aligned along the center of the dividing cell

metastasis (meh-TASS-tah-sis) the transfer of a disease from one part of an organ to another or to a different organ by the transfer of causative organisms or, as in the case of cancer, by the transfer of cells.

METASTASIS: Transmission of a disease from one part of the body to another.

metastasize (me-TASS-tah-size) to form a new focus of a disease (e.g., cancer) in another part of the body by the process of metastasis.

METHEMOGLOBINEMIA: Presence of methemoglobin in the bloodstream caused by the reaction of materials with the hemoglobin in red blood cells that reduces their oxygen-carrying capacity.

mg/kg: Milligram per kilogram. Dosage used in toxicology testing to indicate a dose administered per kg of body weight.

mg/m3: Milligram per cubic meter of air. mg/m3 = ppm x MW/24.45 at 25 C.

mg: Milligram (1/1000, 10-3, of a gram).

MH: Mental Health

MH: Mental Health

Microelectrode A very small electrode used to pick up electrical signals, often from a single nerve cell.

Microgram (ug): One-millionth (10-6) of a gram.

Micrometer (um): One-millionth (10-6) of a meter; often referred to as a micron.

microtubule (my-kro-TOO-b'you'l) one of a number of small tubular structures found inside nearly all cells

Middle School Caters for children from 8 to 12 or 9 to 13 years of age. Legally they are either primary or secondary schools depending on the preponderance of age groups in the school population - ie. under or over 11 years of age.

Millimeter (mm): 1/1000 of a meter.

Mind/body medicine may soon revolutionize modern health care. Recognizing the profound interconnection of mind and body, the body's innate healing capabilities, and the role of self- responsibility in the healing process, mind/body medicine utilizes a wide range of modalities, including biofeedback, imagery, hypnotherapy, meditation, and yoga.

Miosis: pupillary constriction

miotic: a compound that dilates the pupils.

MISCIBLE: Extent to which liquids or gases can be mixed or blended.

MIST: Suspended liquid droplets in the air generated by condensation from the gaseous to the liquid state or by mechanically breaking up the liquid by splashing or atomizing.

mitosis (mt-TOE-sis) a type of cell division in which the resulting cells contain the same number of chromosomes as the original cell

mitotic spindle (my-TOT-ik) a microtubular (see microtubule) structure that connects chromosomes during metaphase of mitosis

MIXTURE: Heterogeneous association of materials that cannot be represented by a chemical formula and that does not undergo chemical change as a result of interaamong the mixed materials.

ml: Milliliter. 1/1000 of a liter. A metric unit of capacity, for all practical purposes equal to 1 cubic centimeter. One cubic inch is about 16 ml.

mm Hg: A measure of pressure in millimeters of a mercury column above a reservoir, or difference of level in a U-tube.

MOLE: Quantity of a chemical substance that has a weight in a unit numerically equal to the molecular weight.

Molecular biology The study of molecular and events that underlie biological processes. Molecular biology is in a period of explosive development, mostly thanks to recombinant DNA technology.

MOLECULAR WEIGHT: The sum of the atomic weights of the atoms in a molecule.

mons pubis (Mahns PEW bis): the rounded mound of fatty tissue that covers the pubic bone. The skin is covered by pubic hairs.

Motor disorder:- Something wrong with the way a person controls his muscles.MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging, a method of scanning the brain that produces detailed maps of brain structure without X-rays or other radiation by relying on the difference in the magnetic resonance of certain atomic nuclei. A system for making very detailed images of internal parts of the body.

moxybustion: the smoke used in acupuncture.

mppcf: Millions of particles per cubic foot of air, based on impinger samples counted by light-field techniques (OSHA).

MR: Mental Retardation

mucilage: tacky, water-insoluble sugar derivatives.

mucosa (MYU co sa) : a mucus membrane.

MUCOUS MEMBRANE: The mucous-secreting lining that lines the hollow organs of the body.

mucus (MYU cus): a slippery secretion that is produced by mucous membranes (the specialized lining of organs). It moistens and protects the tissue that it comes from.

Multiple personality disorder A rare dissociative disorder marked by the appearance, within one person, of two or more distinct personalities, each with its own name, history, and traits. The alternative personalities are usually fully integrated with consistent patterns of behavior and attitudes.

MUTAGEN: Substance or agent capable of altering the genetic material in a living cell.

MW: abbreviation for molecular weight.

Mydriasis: pupillary dilation

mydriatic: an agent used to dilate the pupils.

myenteric (my-AL-gee-ah) muscular pain

myenteric relating to the muscular coat of the intestine

Myopia: Nearsightedness, short-sighted (UK): a refractive condition in which light entering the eye is focused short of the retina, resulting in a blurred image The person can see near, but far objects seem blurred. Can usually be corrected with glasses or contact lenses.

Myosin A protein that often acts together with actin to produce cell or organelle movements.

myositis inflammation of a muscle

myringotomy (mir-ing-GOT-oh-my) draining fluid from within the eardrum by means of a needle


n-: Normal.Used as a prefix in chemical names signifying a straight-chain structure.

NAAR: National Alliance for Autism Research

NAPAS: National Association of Protection & Advocacy Systems

NARCOSIS: Stupor or unconsciousness produced by narcotics or other materials.

NASDE: National Association of State Directors Of Special Education

Naturopathic Medicine treats health conditions by utilizing the body's inherent ability to heal. Naturopathic physicians aid the healing process by incorporating a variety of alternative methods based on the patient's individual needs. Diet, lifestyle, work, and personal history are all considered when determining a treatment regimen.

NAUSEA: Tendency to vomit, a feeling of sickness at the stomach.

NBD: Neurobiological Disorders

Near-sightedness:- Myopia:- The person can see near, but far objects seem blurred. Can usually be corrected with glasses or contact lenses.

NECROSIS: Localized death of tissue.

NEOPLASM: New or abnormal tissue growth that is uncontrollable and progressive.

Neovascularization: the formation of new blood vessels, often fragile and inappropriate for the location

NEPHROTOXIC: Poisonous to the kidney.

Nerve cell A specialized cell that transmits information to other nerve cells, muscle, or gland cells. It is the basic working unit of the brain. Also called a "neuron."

nervine: an agent that relieves nervousness; mild tranquilizer.

Nervine: Having the quality of acting upon or affecting the nerves; quieting nervous excitement.

Neural network A computational device made of units that resemble neurons. Such networks are often used to simulate brain activity.

Neural therapy uses injections of anesthetics to remove short circuits in the body's electrical network. This process frees up the body's flow of energy and normalizes cellular function, making neural therapy an effective treatment for a variety of health conditions, especially chronic pain.

Neuralgic: A substance which works to alleviate nerve pain.

NEURITIS: Inflammation of the nerves.

Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) helps people detect and reprogram unconscious pattern of thought and behaviour in order to alter psychological responses and enhance the healing process. NLP has provided positive results for people suffering from various conditions, including AIDS, cancer, allergies, arthritis, Parkinson's disease, and migraine headaches.

Neurologist:- A doctor who specializes in treating disorders Neuron A nerve cell, the basic working unit of the nervous system.

neuron (NUR-on) nerve cell

Neuroscience The study of the nervous system, including vision, hearing, smell, and the control of movement and other behaviors.

Neurosis Freud's term for a psychological disorder characterized by self-punishing, maladaptive behavior, emotional symptoms, or physical symptoms that protect a person against unconscious anxiety. It is no longer used as a clinical diagnosis.

Neurosis:- An abnormal behavior which a person has to compensate for a psychological problem.Neurotransmitter A chemical released by a neuron at a synapse to relay information to an adjacent cell.

neurotransmitter (new ro trans MIT ter): a chemical substance that makes it possible for one neuron to communicate with another neuron.

NEUTRALIZE: To render chemically harmless; to return the ph to the neutral level of 7.

neutropenia (new-tro-PEE-knee-ah) a decrease in the number of white blood cells

NICHCY: National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities (800) 695-0285

NIH: National Institutes of Health

NIMH: National Institutes of Mental Health

NLP:- Neuro-Linguistic Programming:- A system of therapy using words to effect changes in the way a person thinks.

NON-FLAMMABLE: Incapable of being easily ignited or burning with extreme rapidity when lighted. Also, a DOT hazard class for any compressed gas other than a flammable one.

non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) (en SED): a substance that prevents or diminishes the synthesis of prostaglandins. Since prostaglandins are involved in various pain processes, such as uterine cramps, NSAIDs can act as analgesics.

NON-TOXIC: The probable lethal dose of undiluted product to 50% of the test animals determined from dermal toxicity studies (LD50) is greater than 2 grams per kilogram of body weight.

NOx: A general formula for oxides of nitrogen (NO,NO2). They react with moisture in the respiratory tract to produce acids that corrode and irritate tissue, causing congestion and pulmonary edema. Symptoms of acute exposure can develop over 6 to 24 hours. Chronic exposure to low levels can cause irritation, cough, headache, and tooth corrosion. Exposure to 5 to 50 ppm of NO2 can cause slowly evolving pulmonary edema. Commonly produced by combustion processes, including motor vehicle engines.

NSAC: National Society for Autistic Children, previous name of the Autism Society of America

nucleoside a component molecule of RNA and DNA

NUISANCE PARTICULATES: Dusts that do not produce significant organic disease or toxic effect from "reasonable" concentrations and exposures.

Nursery Class Local authority and private establishments, providing pre-school education, usually ages 2 to 5.

Nutritional Supplements Recent research has demonstrated that diet alone may not be sufficient to supply the nutrients necessary for overalgood health. While most experts agree that nutritional supplements are vital for a variety of illness, injuries and age-related problems, vitamin and mineral supplements can also help to maintain optimal physical and psychological health, and promote longevity and chronic disease prevention.

NYSTAGMUS: Spastic, involuntary motion of the eyeballs. a rapid, repetitive, involuntary movement or rotation of the eyes To-and-fro involuntary movement of the eyes.


ObsessionPersistant, unwanted, unpleasant, and intrusive thoughts, images, or impulses that repeatedly well up in the mind of the obsessive-compulsive disorder sufferer and cause a high degree of anxiety. Some examples of obsessions include fear of being contaminated with germs, repeated doubts (is the stove on?), agressive impulses, or sexual images. See also compulsions.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) A neurobiological anxiety disorder affecting more than 2% of the population, equally distributed among males and females. Symptoms typically begin during the teenage years and early adulthood, but up to one-third of cases begin in childhood. Sufferers of OCD experience both obsessions and compulsions. Sufferers are usually aware of their problems and struggle to control their obsessive-compulsive symptoms, but their resistance usually weakens over the years.

obstetrician (ob steh TRISH un): a doctor who specializes in giving medical care to women during pregnancy, childbirth, and immediately thereafter.

Occupational Therapy:- A curative program based on giving the person jobs to do which will help or cure his condition.Ocular dominance The tendency of clusters of nerve cells in the visual system to respond primarily to one eye rather than to the other.

OCD: Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

OCR: Office of Civil Rights

Ocular Motility:- The ability of the eyes to move freely in all directions.Oculomotor facility:- Ability to move the eyes.ODD:- Oppositional Defiant Disorder - he purposely does the opposite of what you tell him to do.

ODOR THRESHOLD: Lowest concentration of a substance's vapor, in air, that can be smelled.

ODOR: Description of the smell of the substance.

oleoresins: natural mixtures of resins and volatile oils.

Olfactory bulb A pea-sized structure on the undersurface of the frontal lobe of the brain that receives inputs from the olfactory neurons and projects to the regions of the brain concerned with the sense of smell.

Olfactory cell A neuron that senses odorant molecules. Olfactory cells lie in the upper part of the nose. Their outer surfaces bear hair-like cilia. From their lower surfaces the cells extend an axon that passes to the olfactory bulb.

Olfactory system The sensory cells in the nose and the regions of the brain with which they are connected that collectively are involved in the sense of smell.

OLFACTORY: Relating to the sense of smell.

oligomenorrhea (ol ih goh men oh REE ah): the medical name for infrequent periods.

OLIGURIA: Scanty or low volume of urine.

One-Brain:-A system of therapy based on Kinesiology.Onset:- The sound first produced when saying a word.

OPAQUE: Impervious to light rays.

OPEN TRANSFER: Any transfer that at any time involves contact of a moving fluid with the atmosphere, air, or oxygen. Open transfer of flammable liquids, especially Class IA liquids, is dangerous due to the release of flammable vapors into the work area. Since there is a risk of fire or explosion if an ignition source is present, do these transfers only in a hood.

Ophthalmologist: a physician specializing in medical, and surgical treatment of eye diseases and disorders

Ophthalmoscope An instrument used to view the interior of the eye, especially the retina.

Ophthalmoscopy: examination of the internal structures of the eye using an illumination and magnification system.(ophthalmoscope)

Oppositional-defiant disorder A disorder of early to middle childhood that may evolve into a conduct disorder, usually diagnosed before the age of twelve; children with oppositional defiant disorder defy adult rules, are angry, and often lose their tempers.

Opthamologist:- A doctor who specializes in the medical health of the eye. Can diagnose illness of the eyes, treat them and perform surgery.

Optic chiasm The site on the base of the brain where roughly half the nerve fibers from each eye cross to the opposite side of the brain and half stay on the same side. (From the Greek letter chi, X, whose shape is a cross.)

Optic Neuritis: a condition of inflamation of the optic nerve

Optician:- Screens eyes for clear vision, prescribes and sells glasses and contact lenses.Optometrist: a physician who treats refractive errors and eye diseases. An optician who checks for many aspects of the ways in which the eyes work. (See also Behavioral/Extended Optometric Program[OEP] optometrist)

ORAL: Used in or taken into the body through the mouth.

ORGANIC MATERIALS: Compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and other elements with chain or ring structures.

Orphan Drug a drug for which the target population is limited or for which the disease it treats occurs rarely

Orthokeratology: a non-surgical procedure using contact lenses to alter the shape of the cornea to effect a change in the refractive error

Orthomolecular Medicine Employing vitamins, minerals, and amino acids to create optimum nutritional content and balance in the body, orthomolecular medicine targets a wide range of conditions, including depression, hypertension, schizophrenia, cancer, and other mental and physiological disorders.

Orthoptist:- An optician who specializes in treating some types of convergence and acuity deficiencies.Osteopathy is a form of physical medicine that helps restore the structural balance of the musculoskeletal system. Combining joint manipulations, physical therapy and postural reduction, osteopathy is effective in treating spinal and joint difficulties, arthritis, digestive disorders, menstrual problems, and chronic pain.

os (OSS): an opening. In the reproductive tract, the opening of the cervix is called the os.

OSEP: Office of Special Education Programs

OSERS: Office of Special Education Rehabilitative Services

osteoporosis (oss tee oh poh ROH sis): a marked loss of bone mass resulting in an increased risk of bone fractures. Bone loss occurs with aging and is acclerated in women at menopause when estrogen levelsbecome low. Another risk factor is low dietary calcium and Vitamin D.

OT: Occupational Therapy

ova (sing., ovum) (OH vah): female eggs that are released from the ovary at ovulation.

ovaries (OH ver eez): two oval-shaped organs located in the lower abdomen on either side of the uterus that produce hormones and release eggs or ova.

OVEREXPOSURE: Exposure to a hazardous material beyond the allowable exposure levels.

ovulation (oh view LAY shun): the process by which one ovum matures and is released by the ovaries. It occurs on about day 14 of a normal menstrual cycle.

ovulatory phase (OV you la tauree FAZ) : the time in the menstrual cycle when the egg leaves the ovary.

OXIDATION: Reaction in which a substance combines with oxygen provided by an oxidizer or oxidizing agent. An oxidation reaction is always accompanied by an offsetting reduction reaction in which (1) oxygen is removed from a compound; or (2) atoms, molecules, or ions gain electrons.

OXIDE POX: Dermatitis caused by contact with oxides under poor personal hygienic conditions.

OXIDIZER: Substance that yields oxygen readily to stimulate the combustion of organic matter.

OXIDIZING AGENT: Chemical or substance that brings about an oxidation reaction.

Oxygen therapies alter the body's chemistry to help overcome disease, promote repair, and improve overall function. These therapies have been found to be effective in treating a wide variety of conditions, including infections (viral, fungal, parasitic, bacterial), circulatory problems, chronic fatigue syndrome, arthritis, allergies, cancer, and multiple sclerosis.

oxytocic: an agent to promote uterine contractions during childbirth.


P&A: Protection & Advocacy Agency: Designed to protect Individuals with disabilities, every state has one

PALPITA: Irregular, rapid heartbeat.

pancreatitis (pan-kree-ah-TIE-tis) acute or chronic inflamation of the pancreas

Panic attack/Panic disorders A stress-related, brief feeling of intense fear and impending doom or death, accompanied by intense physiological symptoms such as rapid breathing and pulse, sweaty palms, smothering sensations, shortness of breath, choking sensations, and dizziness. These panic attacks can happen very frequently and leave the individual emotionally drained. Sufferers oftenlive in fear of having another panic attack and develop avoidance (phobic) behaviors. Sufferers often consult physicians many times thinking they are having a heart attack or asthma attack.

PAP smear (Papanicolaou smear) (pap ah nick oh LAY ooh smeer): a test performed to detect pre-cancer or early cancer of the cervix. This is done by gently scraping and swabbing the cervix and its os to obtain the cervical cells. These cells are then placed on a microscope slide and examined for suspicious cells.

Papilledema: non-inflammatory swelling/elevation of the optic nerve due to increased intracranial pressure

papilloma (pap ih LOH mah): a benign, warty tumor caused by human papilloma virus.

parakeratosis (par-ah-ker-ah-TOE-sis) persistence of the nuclei in the cells of the stratum corneum of the epidermis, as seen, for example, in psoriasis

parasiticide: an external or internal agent to destroy parasites.

parasympathomimetic: an agent that excites the parasympathetic nervous system, e.g., tobacco.

PARATHESIA: Sensation of pricking, tinkling, or creeping on the skin that has no objective cause.

PARTICULATE: Small, separate pieces of an airborne material. Generally, anything that is not a fiber and has an aspect ratio of 3 to 1.

PARTS PER MILLION (PPM): Unit for measuring concentration of a gas or vapor in air. Parts of the gas or vapor in a million parts of air. Also used to indicate the concentration of a particular substance in a liquid or solid.

PASS: Plan for Achieving Self Support: employment program for adults with disabilities

Pathology:- IllnessPathway A set of nerve connections through which information can travel from one brain region to another.

Patterning:- A method of stimulating development of the brain and muscular control by moving the limbs of the body in definite sequences so that eventually the patient learns how to make the movements by himself.

PDD: Pervasive Developmental Disorder

PDDNOS: Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified

peak plasma drug concentration the highest level of drug that can be obtained in the blood usually following multiple doses

pectins: partially methoxylated uronic acid sugars.

Pectoral: A medicine for diseases of the chest organs, especially the lungs.

pedicullicide: an agent to control lice.

Peer:- Your equal - a person in the same position/status as yourself

pepsin a gastric enzyme involved in digestion

PERCENT VOLATILE: Percent volatile by volume is the percentage of a liquid or solid (by volume) that will evaporate at an ambient temperature of 70 degrees F (unless some other temperature is specified). Examples: butane, gasoline, and paint thinner (mineral spirits) are 100 percent volatile; their individual evaporation rates vary, but in time, each will evaporate completely.

perimenopause (pe ri MEN oh paus): the period of time that precedes menopause. Usually identified by the onset of

perineum (pair in EE um): the area between the vagina and the anus.

period (peer EE od): the menstrual flow.

Peripatetic Teacher A teacher who is not attached to any one school, but travels to several.

Peripheral awareness:- Ability to see from the sides of the eyes.

peristalsis wave-like movement of tubular structures such as the esophagus

PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LIMIT (PEL): Legally enforced exposure limit for a substance established by OSHA. The PEL indicates the permissible concentration of air contaminants to which nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed 8 hours a day, 40 hours a week, over a working lifetime (40 years), without adverse effects.

Perseveration: The practice of repeating something over and over or the habit of pursuing a topic relentlessly

PERSONAL HYGIENE: Precautionary measures taken to maintain good health when exposed to harmful materials.

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE): Devices or clothing worn to help isolate a worker from direct exposure to hazardous materials.

Personality disorders Psychological disorders in which maladaptive personality patterns cause personal distress or inability to get along with others. These inflexible ways of interacting often remain constant despite aging, different environments, and medication, and often cause serious difficulties for the disordered individual. See also borderline personality.

PET Positron Emission Tomography, a type of scan that measures changes in blood flow associated with brain function by detecting positrons, positively charged particles emitted by radioactively labeled substances that have been injected into the body.

PETROLEUM DISTILLATE: Complex mixture of hydrocarbons, liquid at normal ambient conditions, separated from crude oil and other refinery process streams by distillation.

PET-Scan:- Positron-Emission Tomography:- Phacoemulsificatiion (fay-koh-ee-mul-sih-fih-KAY-shun): a form of extracapsular cataract extraction in which an ultrasonic instrument is used to shatter and break up a cataract, making it easier to remove.

pH: Scale of 0 to 14 representing acidity or alkalinity of aqueous solution. Pure water has pH of 7. Substance in aqueous solution will ionize to various extent giving different concentrations of H+ and OH- ions.

Pheromone A chemical produced by an organism that signals its presence to other members of the same species. Of particular importance in sexual behavior.

PHLEGM: Thick mucous from the respiratory passage.

Phobia Persistant fear of specific things or situations which lead to avoidance of such things or situations. Some common examples of phobias are fears of dogs, insects, snakes, driving, heights, tunnels, bridges, thunderstorms, or flying. See also agoraphobia, social phobia, and school phobia.

Phobia:- Illogical fearPhoneme:-The component sounds in a syllable.Phonics:- An approach to language based on the sounds of the alphabet.Photon A unit of light.

phosphorylation the process of adding phosphate (a unique combination of phosphorous and oxygen atoms) molecular groups to a compound

PHOTOPHOBIA: Intolerance to light.

Photophobia: sensitivity to light

Photoreceptor One of the 125 million nerve cells in the retina of each eye that emit electrical signals when activated by light of a particular wavelength. There are two types of photoreceptor cells in vertebrates: rods, used in low light, and cones, which respond in brighter light and to color.

Photorefractive Keratotomy(PRK) a technique employing an excimer laser to reshape the surface of the cornea and thereby reducing nearsightedness.

PHYSICAL HAZARD: Means a chemical for which there is scientifically valid evidence that it is a combustible liquid, a compressed gas, explosive, flammable, an organic peroxide, an oxidizer, pyrophoric, unstable (reactive) or water reactive.

PHYSICAL STATE: Condition of a material (solid, liquid, or gas) at room temperature.

Physician Hospital Association, PHO A Physician Hospital Association is an organization that includes hospitals and physicians contracting with one or more HMOs, insurance plans, or directly with employers to provide health care services.

Physio-therapy:- A curative program based on the person doing various types of exercises.

Pingecula: a (usually) irritation caused by degeneration of the conjunctiva resulting in a thickening and yellowing of the normally thin transparent tissue

pituitary gland (pih-TOO-ih-tair-ee gland): a small gland located at the base of the brain It is known as the master gland because of the many hormones it secretes to control the function of other endocrine glands found throughout the body.

pituitary, pituitary gland a pea-sized structure, which secretes many important hormones, located behind the hypothalamushy

placebo (ple SEE bo): an inactive substance given as if it were a dose of a real drug.

placebo an inactive compound having no physiological effect; an inert substance identical in appearance to the treatment drug used in clinical studies

Placebo:- A dummy treatment which the patient thinks is real.Point of Service Plan, POS A POS is a health plan whose members can choose their services when they need them, either in the HMO or from a provider outside the HMO at some cost to the member. Or a plan in which the primary directs services and referrals.

placenta (pluh CEN tah) : an organ that develops in the uterus around a maturing baby. It supplies oxygen and nutrients to the baby.

plaque an accumulation of cholesterol and other material, which builds on the inner wall of an artery and obstructs blood flow.

PMS: premenstrual syndrome.

PNEUMOCONIOSIS: Respiratory tract and lung condition caused by inhalation and retention of irritant mineral or metallic particles. An X-ray can detect changes, which include fibrosis.

pneumonitis inflammation of the lungs

POISON CONTROL CENTER: Provides medical information on a 24-hour basis for accidents involving ingestion of potentially poisonous materials.

POISON, CLASS A: DOT term for an extremely dangerous poison such as a poisonous gas or liquid of such a nature that a very small amount of the gas or vapor of the liquid mixed with air is dangerous to life.

POISON, CLASS B: Term for liquid, solid, paste, or semisolid substances other than class A poisons or irritating materials known or presumed by animal tests to be so toxic to man to be a health hazard during transportation.

POISON: Any substance that is injurious to health and may lead to death when relatively small amounts are taken either internally or externally.

polyarthritis inflammation of several joints at the same time

POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL (PCB): Pathogenic and teratogenic compound used as a heat transfer medium. It accumulates in tissue.

polymenorrhea (po lee men oh REE ah): the medical name for periods that occur too frequently.

polymer (POL-eh-mer) a molecule formed by the joining of many smaller molecules; a protein, for example, is a polymer of amino acids

polymerase an enzyme that forms long chain polymers from simple molecular components; DNA polymerase, for example, forms DNA strands from nucleosides

POLYMERIZATION: Chemical reaction in which one or more small molecules combine to form larger molecules. A hazardous polymerization is such a reaction that takes place at a rate that releases large amounts of energy that can cause fires or explosions or burst containers. Materials that can polymerize usually contain inhibitors that can delay the reaction.

Posterior Capsular Opacification (PCO): opacification of the posterior lens capsule following cataract extraction. Sometimes called "after cataract," and may cause blurred vision.

Posterior segment: the part of the eye posterior (behind) to the crystalline lens, including the vitreous, choroid, retina and optic nerve

Posterior Vitreous Detachment (PVD): the separation of the vitreous body from itıs attachment from the retinal surface due to shrinkage from age, degenerative or inflammatory conditions or trauma.

Post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) A dissociative disorder in which symptoms develop following a psychologically distressing event that is outside the normal range of human experiences (military combat, sexual assault, natural disasters, severe auto accidents). The essential features of PTSD include increased arousal, re-experiencing of a traumatic event, and avoidance of stimuli associated with the traumatic event. The symptoms include continued flashbacks, nightmares, and intense distress when exposed to an object or situation that is related to the traumatic event.

Posture:- Position and attitude of the body.Preferred Provider Organization, PPO A PPO is a managed care organization, MCO, that contracts with a network of health care professionals and other health care providers who deliver services for set fees, usually at a discount to the MCO. PPOs usually sell to insurers and employers and do not assume insurance risk.

POUR POINT: Temperature at which a liquid ceases or begins to flow or at which it congeals.

POx: A general term for the several oxides of phosphorus.

PPE: Personal protective equipment. Devices or clothing worn to help insulate a worker from direct exposure to hazardous materials. Examples include gloves and respirators.

PRECORDIAL: In front of the heart, stomach.

preeclampsia (pree-ee-KLAMP-see-ah) development of hypertension (high blood pressure), accompanied by edema, proteinuria, or both, due to pregnancy

Prefix:- A standard letter or set of letters which is added to the beginning of a word or root to change its meaning. (e.g. pretest - the letters pre modify the word test to make it mean before the test)

premenstrual (luteal) phase (pree MEN stroo al FAZ): the phase of the menstrual cycle that begins after ovulation and before menstruation.

premenstrual syndrome (PMS) (pree MEN stroo al SIN drom): a cyclic problem related to the menstrual cycle that is characterized by headaches, mood disturbances, constipation, food cravings, weight gain and breast tenderness. These symptoms are generally seen 7 to 10 days before the menstrual cycle begins.

pre-ovulatory (follicular) phase (pree OV you la tauree FAZ): the phase of the menstrual cycle that begins with menstruation and ends with ovulation.

Preparatory School Independent school for children aged 8 to 13, preparing for the common entrance examination.

Presbyopia: loss of accommodative ability as the eye fails to allow for the focusing of near objects, resulting from age-related changes in the crystalline lens or cilliary muscle

Presbyopia:- Near-sightedness caused by the lens losing its elasticity. Usually a result of old age.

primary care physician (PRI me ree car fe zish en): a physician responsible for the majority of a person's health care. He or she can be a family practitioner, a general practitioner, a pediatrician, an internist or an Ob/Gyn. Primary care physicians will refer to specialists when necessary.

Primary School A school for children from 5 to 11. It may also be used as a generic term to cover infant, first, junior and middle schools.

PRIMARY SKIN IRRITANT: A non-corrosive substance which produces severe skin irritation.

Primary visual cortex The region of the cerebral cortex at the back of the brain, to which the LGN relays information from the eyes. Also known as the "striate cortex." From there the information is sent to higher visual areas.

Prism: an optical element which deviates the path of light

Pritikan Diet:-A type of therapy using a special diet based on complex carbohydrates and a rigorous course of exercise.

PRODUCE: To manufacture, process, formulate, or repackage.

PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER: Four-digit number, prefaced by UN or NA, used in Canada under the Transportation of Dangerous Goods Regulation for use by emergency personnel to identify a material in the event of an accident.

progesterone (pro JES te ron): a hormone produced by the ovaries. It is released during the second half of the menstrual cycle and during pregnancy.

progestin (pro JES te n): any natural or synthetic steroid hormones, that produce the same affects of progesterone on the endometrium of the uterus.

Prognosis:- A forecast of how the condition will continue to develop.

Progressive relaxation A form of relaxation training that involves alternatively tensing and relaxing different muscle groups. It is now widely used to treat various stress-related problems.

Projective tests Psychological tests used to infer a person's motives, thoughts, perceptions, and conflicts on the basis of the person's interpretations of ambiguous or unstructured stimuli, such as ink blots.

prolactin (pro LAK tin): a hormone that stimulates milk production and secretion. High levels in a non-pregnant woman can lead to abnormal menstrual function and breast milk secretions.

prospective, randomized, double-blind trial a clinical trial in which the method foranalyzing data has been specified in the protocol before the study has begun (prospective), the patients have been randomly assigned to receive either the study drug or alternative treatment, and in which neither the patient nor the physician(s) conducting the study know which treatment is being given t he patient

prostaglandins (pros te GLAN dinz): a family of hormones that affect the activity of the gastrointestinal tract, body temperature, blood pressure, kidney fluid balance, uterine contractions, and the constriction of air passages in the lungs;they are often involved in the pain process in me nstruation because they cause uterine muscle to contract.

PROSTRATION: Physical exhaustion, incapacitation.

proteinuria presence of protein in the urine above normal limits

PROTEINURIA: Presence of protein in the urine.

psia: Pounds per square inch absolute.

psig: Pounds per square inch gauge (i.e., above atmospheric pressure).

Psychiatric nurses These core mental health professionals, who have earned a Masters degree in Psychiatric Nursing, typically have extensive training in psychopharmacology and counselling.

Psychiatric social workers These core mental health professionals, who have earned the M.S.W. degree, are trained to appreciate and emphasize the impact of environmental factors on mental disorders.

Psychiatrist:-A doctor specializing in treating emotional problems. Is qualified to prescribe drugs.Psychiatrists These core mental health professionals have had extensive residency experience and have earned the M.D. degree. Training focuses on psychopharmacology and the other medical therapies, diagnosis, and psychotherapy.

Psychoanalysis An approach to psychology that emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts. It encompasses both a theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy. Psychoanalytic Method - In psychoanalytic therapy, the effort to bring unconscious material into consciousness, often through dream recall and free association.

Psychoeducational diagnostician is a term often used for masters level professionals in the field of mental health who perform assessments and provide recommendations for the treatment of learning disabilities and/or attention-deficit disorders. They may have a degree in learning disabilities or special education.

Psychologist:-A therapist specializing in treating emotional problems. Is not usually qualified to prescribe drugs.Psycho-neuroimmunology:-PNI:- A system for treating illnesses using the patient's mood and imagination.

Psychopharmacology The management of psychiatric illness using medication.

Psychosis/Psychotic disorders An extreme mental disturbance that involves an actual break with reality, involving distorted perceptions of reality and irrational behavior, often accompanied by hallucinations and delusions. The disturbance may have either phychological or organic causes. Childhood schizophrenia and autism are forms of psychosis.

Psychosis:- Mental abnormality

Psychotherapist A person who practices psychotherapy; either a clinical psychologist, psychiatrist, professional counselor, social worker, or other mental health professional.

Psychotherapy The treatment of mental disorders, emotional problems, and personality difficulties through talking with a therapist. There are dozens of different styles of psychotherapy.

PSYCHOTROPIC: Acting on the mind.

PT: Physical Therapy

PTA:- Parents - Teachers Association.Ptosis: drooping of the upper or lower eyelid from it's normal position

PTI: Parent Training Information Center

puberty (PYOU ber tee): the period of life that occurs when a child matures into an adult. It is made up of a variety of physical, sexual, emotional, intellectual and psychological changes that take place between the ages of 9 and 16.

pubic area (PYOU bic air EE a): the area of the body that extends from the lower abdomen to the area between the legs.

Public School Independent secondary school usually in membership of the Headmasters' Conference, the Governing Bodies Association or Governing Bodies of Girls' Schools Association. Pupils are aged from 13 to 18.

PULMONARY EDEMA: Fluid in the lungs.

Pupil: the center hole in the iris through which light must pass to reach the back of the eye.

Pupillary response: the constriction and dilation of the pupil due to stimulation by light or accommodation

Purgative: A purging medicine; a cathartic.

purgative: a strong laxative and emetic agent.

Pursuit movement:- Ability of the eyes to follow a moving object.Qigong combines movement, meditation, and breath regulation to enhance the flow of vital energy in the body, improve blood circulation, and enhance immune function. Because qigong can be used by the healthy as well as the severely ill, it is one of the most broadly applicable systems of self-care in the world.In China, it is estimated that 200 million people practice qigong everyday.

PYOLYSIS: Chemical decomposition or breaking apart of molecules produced by heating.

PYROPHORIC: Materials that ignite spontaneously in air below 130 degrees F. Occasionally friction will ignite them.


Radial keratotomy (RK): a surgical procedure using diamond scalpel blades to create linear incisions into the cornea which result in the flattening of the tissue and thereby altering the refractive error

randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial a clinical trial in which patients have been randomly assigned to receive either the study drug or alternative treatment, in which neither the patient nor the physician(s) conducting the study know which treatment is being given the patient, and in which the alternative to the study drug is a placebo; the study is conducted at several centers

REACTION: Chemical transformation or change; interaction of two or more substances to form new substance.

REACTIVE MATERIAL: Chemical substance or mixture that will vigorously polymerize, decompose, condense, or become self-reactive due to shock, pressure, or temperature. Includes explosive materials, organic peroxides, pressure-generating materials, and water-reactive materials.

REACTIVITY: Tendency of a substance to undergo chemical reaction with the release of energy.

REAGENT: Substance used in a chemical reaction to produce another substance or to detect its composition.

Reception Class A class organised for new entrants to an infant or first school, which introduces children to school life.

Receptor A specialized sensory cell that responds to a unique type of stimulus such as light, sound, or odorant molecules, and transmits this information to the central nervous system. The term is sometimes used for specialized molecules on the surface of cells that respond to external signals.

RECOMMENDED EXPOSURE LIMIT: The highest allowable airborne concentration that is not expected to injure a worker. Expressed as a ceiling limit or as a time weighted average, usually for 10-hour work shift.

Reconstructive Therapy uses injection of natural substances to stimulate the growth of connective tissue in order to strengthen weak or damaged tendons or ligaments. As a simple, cost-effective alternative to drug and surgical treatments, reconstructive therapy is an effective treatment for degenerative arthritis, low back pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, migraine headaches, and torn ligaments and cartilage.

REDUCING AGENT: Substance that (1) combines with oxygen or (2) loses electrons to the reaction during a reduction reaction.

Reflex:- An automatic reactionReflexology:- A system of treatment based on the assumption that each part of the foot corresponds to each part of the entire body. So massage of the relevant part of the foot is like treating the corresponding part of the body.

Refraction: a determination of the optical error of the eye

Refractive error: the degree to which images received by the eyes are not focused on the retina, e.g.: myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism

Refractive Status:- The amount of correction (through wearing gasses or contact lenses) which the eye needs to have good eyesight.Rehabilitation:- A program for getting a person back to normal.REM Therapy:- A system of removing the trauma from memousing back-and-forth movements of the eye

refrigerant: an agent to cool the body down.

REGISTRY OF TOXIC EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES: Published by NIOSH. Presents basic toxicity data on thousands of materials. Objective is to identify "all known toxic substances" and to reference original studies.

REM:-Rapid Eye Movements:- back-and-forth movements made by the eye during dreaming.

RENAL: Pertaining to the kidney.

REPORTABLE QUANTITY (RQ): Amount of material that when spilled must be reported to the Federal, State, and local authorities under CERCLA, EPCRA, and the CWA.

REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH HAZARD: Any agent that has a harmful effect on the adult male or female reproductive system or the developing fetus or child.

resectable (ree-SEK-tah-bill) capable of being removed by surgery

resins: water-insoluble mixtures of resins, their acids, and alcohols.

RESPIRATORY PROTECTION: Devices that will protect the wearer's respiratory system from overexposure by inhalation to airborne contaminants. Respiratory protection is used when a worker must work in an area where he/she might be exposed to concentration in excess of the allowable exposure limit.

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: Breathing system, including the lungs and air passages, as well as the associated system of nerves and circulatory supply.

Respite: a rest, a break

RESPONSIBLE PARTY: Someone who can provide additional information on the hazardous chemical and appropriate emergency procedures, if necessary.

Retina A multilayered sheet of nerve cells at the back of each eye which converts light into electrical signals that are transmitted to the brain through the optic nerves and tracts. The thin neurological tissue which lines the back wall of the eye which receives light and converts it to electrical signals for transmission via the optic nerve to the brain

Retinal A derivative of vitamin A which absorbs light. Retinal is a component of visual receptor proteins.

Retinal detachment: a separation of the retina from the back wall of the eye. Results in loss of vision in the detached area. Repairable with fair to good prognosis for vision in the early stages.

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) A genetic disorder that causes the degeneration of cells in the retina. If severe, it may lead to complete blindness.

retrovirus a type of virus whose genetic material consists of RNA rather than the usual DNA

Rett's Disorder: A progressive disorder, occuring only in girls marked by a period of normal development and then loss of previously acquired skills.

rhabdomyolysis an acute, potentially fatal disease of skeletal muscle

rhinitis inflammation of the nasal mucosa (mucous membranes in the nasal cavities)

Rhodopsin The light-sensitive receptor protein in rod cells of the retina. When rhodopsin absorbs a photon of light, its molecular shape is changed and it releases energy, leading ultimately to an electrical signal.

Rhymes:- Verse which ends in rimesRimes:- Groups of letters which sound the same.Rod cell A rod-shaped photoreceptor in the vertebrate retina that is responsible for vision in dim light. Rods, which are far more numerous than cones, have rhodopsin as their photopigment.

Role-Playing:- A technique to help a person understand someone else's behavior by asking to pretend that he is that person in that situation.

ROUTES OF ENTRY: Means by which material may gain access to the body (inhalation, ingestion, skin contact).

rubefacient: an agent that brings a blush to the cheeks and increases skin circulation.


Saccidic movements:- Short movements of the eye.

SAINT ANDREW'S CROSS (X): Used in packaging for transport; It means harmful--stow away from foodstuffs.

saponins: glycosides with a soaplike water suspension.

SARA: Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act. Signed into law October 17, 1986. Title III of SARA is known as the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986. A revision and extension of CERCLA, SARA is intended to encourage and support local and state emergency planning efforts. It provides citizens and local governments with information about potential chemical hazards in their communities. SARA calls for facilities that store hazardous materials to provide officials and citizens with data on the types (flammables, corrosives, etc.); amounts on hand (daily, yearly); and their specific locations. Facilities are to prepare and submit inventory lists, MSDSs, and tier 1 and 2 inventory forms. The disaster in Bhopal, India in 1987 added impetus to the passage of this law.

SARCOMA: A tumor that is often malignant.

SCBA: Self-contained breathing apparatus.

Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder marked by some or all of these symptoms: delusions, hallucinations, incoherent word associations, inappropriate emotions, or lack of emotions. It is characterized by serious disturbances of thought and perception which cannot be attributed to brain damage. A separation or loosening of associations, as between feelings and thoughts, is believed to underlie the unusual behavior that is exhibited.

Scholarship Financial award, usually based on merit, granted to a student.

School phobia An anxiety disorder characterized by inappropriate fear of attending school; this phobic behavior often represents a dependency problem that is reinforced by parental attention.

SCLERAE: Tough, white, fibrous covering of the eyeball.

Scotoma: an area of partial or complete loss of vision surrounded by an area of normal vision

Script:- The conversation which a person has with himself which causes him to get into a certain mood or to react in a certain way. Changing the script will therefore change the way he reacts.

SEA: State Education Agency

Second messenger A molecule that conveys the chemical message of a hormone or neurotransmitter, or any other extracellular signal (the first messenger,) to the next stage in the cell's biochemical machinery.

Secondary Schools Cater for the 11 to 18 age group generally, although sixth form and tertiary colleges, where they exist, cater for 16 to 18 year olds. Most secondary schools are comprehensive schools.

SED: Serious Emotional Disorder

Sedative: A remedy which allays irritability and irritation.

sedative: mild depressant; somnorific.

Senses The five senses: vision, hearing, smell, touch, and taste. Touch encompasses all sensations from the body surface, joints, and viscera, including pain, thermal sensitivity, and position sense.

SENSITIZATION: State of immune-response reaction in which further exposure elicits an immune or allergic response. A person previously exposed to a certain material is more sensitive when he experiences further contact with it.

SENSITIZER: Substance which, on first exposure, causes little or no reaction in man or test animals but which, on repeated exposure, may cause a marked response not necessarily limited to the contact site.

Separation anxiety Intense anxiety experienced by children whenever they are separated from their parents.

Sequential Cognitive Processing:- The ability to process information presented sequentially.SES:- Socio-Economic StatusShort-Term Memory:- Information remembered for a short while only.Simultaneous Cognitive Processing:- The ability to process a lot of information which is presented all at one go.

seroton agents (sir e to NEN): medications (e.g., Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil) that have similar effects as serotonin.

serotonin (ser e TO nin): a neurotransmitter found naturally in the brain and intestines that sends messages throughout the body. Impaired serotonin activity has been linked to symptoms of anxiety, impulsiveness, aggression and increased appetite.

serotonin (ser-oh-TOE-nin) an agent that acts to constrict blood vessels and also inhibits gastric secretion

sexually transmitted disease (STD) (SEKSH e we le trans MIT ted DIZ ez): an infectious disease that is transmitted between sexual partners with intimate contact.

SI: Sensory Integration

SI: Speech Impairment

sialogogue: an agent that promotes the flow of saliva.

SIB: Self-Injurious Behavior

SIDEROSIS: Pneumoconiosis caused by the inhalation of iron particles. Also, tissue pigmentation caused by contact iron.

SIGN: Abnormality in the body indicating poisoning or disease which is observable by another person.

SIGNAL WORDS: Distinctive words on a MSDS which serves to alert the reader to the existence and relative degree of a hazard. Signal words are limited to: Danger: Materials that are: highly toxic; corrosive to living tissue; extremely flammable; or are suspected human carcinogens. Warning: Materials that are: moderately toxic; have severe skin irritation potential; cause allergic skin reactions; or are flammable. Caution: Materials that: have a low order of toxicity; produce only slight to moderate skin irrita; or are combustible.

SILICOSIS: Condition of massive fibrosis of the lungs causing shortness of breath because of prolonged inhalation of silica dusts.

Sixth Form College 16 to 19 year olds may transfer from a secondary school to a sixth form college. A wide range of GCE courses at Ordinary and Advanced level are offered, together with an increasing number of vocational and pre-vocational courses for students of all abilities.

Skene's glands (Skeenz glans): two glands located on either side of the urethra. Scientists believe they may once have secreted lubricants to protect the urinary opening.

SLP: Speech-Language Pathologist

SLURRY: Pourable mixture of solid and liquid.

SMOKE: Dry particles and droplets generated by incomplete combustion of an organic material combined with and suspended in the gases from combustion.

Social phobia Persistant anxiety regarding social or performance situations due to a fear of embarrassment. Social phobias can drive sufferers to drop out of school, avoid making friends, or loose their job. Public speaking, meeting new people, going to parties, and going to school or work can provoke feelings of anxiety in sufferers of social phobia. See also agoraphobia and school phobia.

Social worker See psychiatric social worker.

SOLUBILITY IN WATER: Percentage of a material (by weight) that will dissolve in water at ambient temperature.

SOLUTION: Uniformly dispersed mixture. Composed of a solvent and a dissolved substance, called the solute.

SOLVENT: Substance, usually liquid, in which other substances are dissolved. Water is the most common solvent.

Somatosensory areas Areas of the brain involved in sensations such as pain, pressure, temperature, joint position, muscle sense, and movement.

SOOT: Fine particles, usually black, formed by combustion consisting chiefly of carbon. Gives smoke color.

Sound Therapy Sound and music can have a very powerful effect on one's health. Sound therapy is used in hospitals, schools, corporate offices, and psychological treatment programs as an effective treatment to reduce stress, lower blood pressure, alleviate pain, overcome learning disabilities, improve movement and balance, and promote endurance and strength.

SOx: Oxides of sulfur where x equals the number of oxygen atoms.

sp.: abbreviation for species (singular).

SPASM: Involuntary, convulsive muscular contraction.

Spasmodic: A medicine for spasm.

spasmolytic: see antispasmodic.

Special Educational Needs Term used to describe the requirements of children with difficulties in one or more of the following areas: learning, behaviour or emotional, social, physical development. Also, additional arrangements to those generally available designed for children with special educational needs. If a child is deemed to require such provision, the LEA is obliged to issue a formal statement of the child's needs with proposals to meet them.

SPECIFIC CHEMICAL IDENTITY: Chemical name, CAS number, or other information that reveals the precise chemical designation of the substance.

SPECIFIC GRAVITY: Weight of material compared to equal volume of water: expression of density of material.

Specific Learning Disabilities is a chronic condition of presumed neurological origin which selectively interferes with the development, integration, and/or demonstration of verbal and/or nonverbal abilities. Specific Learning Disabilities exists as a distinct handicapping condition in the presence of average to superior intelligence, adequate sensory and motor systems, and adequate learning opportunities. The condition varies in its manifestations and in degree of severity. Throughout life the condition can affect self-esteem, education, vocation, socialization, and/or daily living activities.

specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) (spi SIF ic ser e TO nin re UP tak inHIB et erz): drugs that block the reuptake of serotonin from synapses (the nerve cells). Thus, increasing the concentration of serotonin in the synapses and prolonging its affect. Sold under brand names such as Prozac, Zoloft, and Paxil.

speculum (SPEK ye lum): an instrument that is place in the vagina to open it for examination.

Speech disorders Oral communication that exhibits poor or abnormal use of the vocal system. Speech is unintelligible or so inferior that it draws attention to itself and causes anxiety, feelings of inadequacy, or inappropriate behavior in the speaker.

splanchnic (SPLANK-nik) pertaining to the internal organs

spp.: abbreviation for species (plural).

SSA: Social Security Administration

SSDI: Social Security Disability Insurance

SSI: Supplemental Security Income

STABILITY: Ability of a material to remain unchanged. A material is stable if it remains in the same form under expected and reasonable conditions of storage or use.

STEL: Short-term exposure limit.

Stereopsis:- Depth perception:- The ability to visually inspect 3-dimensional objects, to accurately judge distances and to judge the spatial relationships between two objects.Stereopsis: the ability to perceive three dimensional depth

Stereoscopic Vision:- The ability to see something as a solid, 3-dimensional image.Stimulant:- A drug which makes a person feel more awake.Strabismus A visual disorder, also called cross-eye or wall-eye, involving the inability to fuse the images in the two eyes. Children with strabismus initially have good vision in each eye, but because they tend to favor one eye, they often lose useful vision in the other eye. Vision can be restored if the strabismus is corrected before the age of four. Binocular fixation is not present; commoly referred to as "cross eyed" A problem with the control of the muscles of the eyes which prevent the eyes from aligning properly with each other. One or both eyes may turn in (esotropia - Cross-eyed), One or both eyes may turn out (exotropia - Wall-eyes), One or both eyes may turn up (hypertropia), One or both eyes may turn down (hypotropia). The condition can be treated with glasses, prisms, and/or vision therapy.

sterols: molecules related to cholesterol and some hormones.

STEV: Short-term exposure value.

Stimming: The informal term for self-stimulation

stimulant, CNS: a compound that excites mental function.

stimulant: an agent to increase body metabolism.

Stimulant: An agent which produces a temporary increase of vital activity in the organism, or in any of its parts.

Stomachic: A medicine that strengthens the stomach and excites its action.

stomachic: a preparation for the benefit of the stomach; also a tonic.

STOMATITIS: Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the mouth.

Streaming The separation of pupils into separate groups according to ability in a school. The opposite of mixed ability grouping.

Strobe Lights:- Lights which flash at regular intervals.Stuttering Speech characterized by abnormal hesitations, prolongations, and repetitions which are developmentally inappropriate for the age or mental ability of the speaker.

STUPOR: Partial or nearly complete unconsciousness.

SUBCUTANEOUS: Beneath the skin.

SUBLIME: Change from the solid to the vapor phase without passing through the liquid phase.

sudorific: see diaphoretic.

Suffix:- A standard letter or set of letters which is added to the end of a word or root to change its meaning. (e.g. tests - the letter s modifies the word test to make it mean many tests)

Suggestion:- An idea which you tell someone, hoping he will absorb it into his subconscious

Suppression of Vision:- The mental blocking-out of the image of one eye whenthe brain can fuse together the images from both eyes.

Suppression: the inability to perceive all of part of objects in the field of vision of one eye

Syllables:- The basic sounds of the language.Synapse The site of communication between nerve cells. When a neuron fires, neurotransmitter molecules are released from its axon terminal and diffuse across the small gap between cells (the synaptic cleft). The binding of the neurotransmitter to the appropriate receptor molecules on the surface of the post-synaptic cell causes that cell either to be excited or to be inhibited.

SYNERGY: Interaction of materials to give a combined result different from eithematerial alone.

Synergy:- The unpredictability of a complex system despite knowing how each part works separately.SYNONYM: Another name or names by which a material is known.

synovial (sigh-NO-vee-ahl) relating to the lubricating fluid in joints

synovitis (sin-oh-VIE-tis) inflammation of the joints; arthritis

syphilis (SIF e les): a sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. It can lead to blindness, mental illness, cardiac disease and even death if it is not treated. It can be cured with antibiotic injections.

SYSTEMIC EFFECTS: Acute or chronic adverse health effects which occur in parts of the body removed from the site of exposure to the material.


tachyarrhythmia a distrubance of the heart's rhythym resulting in a heart rate of over 100 beats per minute

tachycardia: a raised heart beat rate.

TACHYCARDIA: Excessively rapid heartbeat, with a pulse rate above 100.

TACHYPNEA: Increased rate of respiration.

tannins: bitter principles of plants containing plant polyphenols.

TARGET ORGAN TOXIN: Toxic substance that attacks a specific organ of the body.

Tarot Cards:- A form of fortune-telling using special cards, Probably based on Tumoh.TEACCH The Division for the Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children, North Carolina organization

TEFRA: Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act

TERATOGEN: Substance or agent to which exposure of a pregnant female can result in malformation in the fetus.

terpenes: hydrocarbon volatile oils, often with a strong smell.

Tertiary College An educational establishment offering sixth form and further education through a full range of courses for the 16 to 19 age group.

testes (TES-tease) plural for testis, one of the two male reproductive glands located in the cavity of the scrotumscrotum

testosterone (tes TOS te ron): a hormone secreted by the testes in the male that stimulates the development of male secondary sex characteristics and is involved in sperm production. Women produce small amounts of this hormone.

testosterone a steroid hormone produced by the testes; it promotes the development of male sex characteristics and regulates male reproductive function; the primary and most potent androgen secreted by the testes

Thalamus The key relay station for information from the sensory pathways to the cerebral cortex.

Therapy:- A course or program for curing or helping a problem.

THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUE: Airborne concentration of a material to which nearly all persons can be exposed day after day, without adverse effects.

THRESHOLD PLANNING QUANTITY (TPQ): Per 40 CFR 302. The amount of material at a facility that requires emergency planning and notification per CERCLA.

thromboembolism an embolism caused by a mass of aggregated blood factors (thrombus)

thrombogenic causing thrombosis or coagulation of the blood

thrombosis (throm-BO-sis) the formation of a mass of aggregated blood factors (thrombus); coagulation of the blood

thyroid (THIGH roid): a butterfly-shaped gland that lies in the front, lower portion of the neck. It regulates the rate of metabolism and influences a wide array of bodily functions.

TINNITUS: Ringing sound in the ears.

tonic: an agent that restores normal tone to the body.

Tonic: Increasing strength, or the tone of the animal system; obviating the effects of debility, and restoring healthy functions.

Tonometry: a procedure for the measurement of intraocular pressure

Touch The sense by which we determine the size, shape, and texture of objects, using receptors in the skin.

Touch-for-Health:-A system of therapy based on Kinesiology.Tourette Syndrome Tourette Syndrome is a neurobiological disorder characterized by tics (involuntary, rapid, sudden movements and/or vocal outbursts that occur repeatedly). The symptoms change periodically in number, frequency, type, and severity - even disappearing for weeks or months at a time. Some common examples of motor tics include eye blinking, head jerking, shoulder shrugging, and facial grimacing. Vocal tics include throat clearing, barking noises, sniffing, and tongue clicking.

TOXIC SUBSTANCE: Chemical or material that (1) has evidence of an acute or chronic health hazard, and (2) is listed in the RTECS manual, provided that the substance causes harm at any dose level; causes cancer or reproductive effects in animals at any dose level; has a median lethal dose level of less than 500 mg per kg of body weight when administered orally to rats; has a median lethal dose level of less than 1000 mg per kg of body weight when administered by continuous contact to the bare skin of albino rabbits; or has a median lethal concentration in air of less than 2000 ppm by volume of gas or vapor, or less than 20 mg per liter of mist, fume, or dust when administered to albino rats.

TOXIC: The probable lethal dose of undiluted product to 50% of the test animals determined from dermal toxicity studies (LD50) is greater than 200 milligrams and less than or equal to 2 grams per kilogram of body weight.

TOXICITY: Sum of adverse effects resulting from exposure to a material, generally by the mouth, skin, or respiratory tract.

TOXICOLOGY: Study of the nature, effects, and detection of poisons in living organisms. Also, substances that are otherwise harmless but prove toxic under particular conditions.

TRADE NAME: Trademark name or commercial trade name for a material given by the manufacturer.

TRADE SECRET: Any confidential formula pattern, process, device, information, or compilation of information used in an employer's business and gives the employer an opportunity to obtain an advantage over competitors.

Traditional Chinese Medicine Traditional Chinese Medicine is an ancient method of health care that combines the use of medicinal herbs, acupuncture, food therapy, massage, and therapeutic exercise. It has proven effective for many conditions, including chronic degenerative disease, cancer, infections disease, allergies, childhood ailments, heart disease, and AIDS.

Tranquilizer:- A drug which calms a person down.Transduction The conversion of environmental stimuli, such as light, heat, or vibration, into electrical signals that can be recognized by the nervous system.

tranquilizer: an agent that reduces phychotic behavior.

transgenic (trans-GEN-ik) pertaining to the insertion by biotechnical means of a foreign gene or genes into the genetic makeup of an organism

Trauma:- An uncomfortable or disturbing state of mind caused by a certain event. The trauma becomes linked with the memory of that event and remains in the subconscious.TVPS:- Test for Visual Perceptual Skills.Twelve-Step Program:- A program for group rehabilitation therapy. Has been used for Alcoholics Anonymous, Debtors Anonymous, drug rehabilitation and dieting programs.

trichomoniasis (trik e me NI e ses): a sexually transmitted disease caused by the organism Trichomonas vaginalis and characterized by a yellow, frothy, musty-smelling vaginal discharge. It can be treated with the antibiotic metronidazole. Trichomoniasis can also be contracted nonsexually.

tumescence (too-MESS-ens) a swelling

TWA: Time-weighted average exposure is the airborne concentration of a material to which a person is exposed, averaged over the total exposure time, generally the total workday (8 to 12 hours).

UAP: University Affiliated Program

Ultra-Sound Scan:- A system for making pictures of internal parts of the body using high-frequency sound.

Ultraviolet radiation: radiant enerwith a wavelength just below that of the visible light. UV-c is the shortest wavelength at 200-280nm and is absorbed by the atmosphere before reaching the surface. Extremely damaging to living tissue. UV-b, a t 280-315nm is "burning rays" of the sun and is damaging to most living tissue. UV-a, at 315-400nm are "tanning rays" of the sun and is somewhat damaging to certain tissues. UV radiation has been described as a contributing factor to the processes which result in ARMD and cataracts.

UNSTABLE: Tending toward decomposition or other unwanted chemical change during normal handling or storage.

UPPER EXPLOSIVE (FLAMMABLE) LIMIT (UEL): Highest concentration (highest percentagof the substance in air) that will produce a flash of fire when an ignition source (heat, electric arc, or flame) is present.

urethra (you REE thruh): a tubular structure that connects the bladder to the urethral opening. It allows transport of urine out of the body.

USE: To package, handle, react, or transfer.

uterus (YEW ter us): a rose-hued, pear-shaped muscular organ situated between the urinary bladder and rectum. Also known as the womb. It's main function is to provide a protective environment for a baby to grow during pregnancy.

UTRICARIA: Nettle rash; hives; elevated, itching white patches.


vagal (VAY-gal) pertaining to the vagus nerve, which supplies sensory connections to the ear, tongue, and pharynx

vagina (vah JIGH nah): the birth canal. The tubular structure that connects the uterus and cervix to the outside of the body.

vaginal secretion (VA ji nul se CRE shun) : a substance that is excreted from the vagina. Is sometimes referred to as vaginal discharge.

VAPOR DENSITY: Weight of vapor or gas compared to an equal volume of air; expression of the density of the vapor or gas.

VAPOR PRESSURE: Pressure exerted by a saturated vapor above its liquid in a closed container. Important facts to remember: Vapor pressure of a substance at 100° F will always be higher than the vapor pressure of the substance at 60° F.Vapor pressures reported on MSDS/s in mmHg are usually very low pressures; 760 mmHg is equivalent to 14.7 psi. The lower the boiling point of a substance, the higher its vapor pressure.

VAPOR: Gaseous form of a solid or liquid substance as it evaporates.

VAPOR: Gaseous state of a material suspended in air that would be a liquid or solid under ordinary conditions.

vasculitis inflammation of a blood vessel

vasoconstriction a narrowing of the blood vessels

VDT:-Video Display Terminal:- General name for the screens used for computers and videos.Veterinary Medicine The principles of alternative medicine are as applicable to animals as they are to human beings. Alternative veterinary medicine is directed toward maintaining natural good health. Animal treatment and healing are achieved using gentle yet effective methods, to treat not only symptoms, but to cure their underlying conditions.

VENTILATION: Circulating fresh air to replace contaminated air.

Vermifuge: A medicine or substance that expels worms from animal bodies.

vermifuge: see anthelmintic.

VERTIGO: Feeling of revolving in space; dizziness, giddiness.

vestibular system (ves-TIB-you-lahr) the organ of the inner ear containing several three semicircular ducts at right angles to one another; helps keep the body balanced

vinca alkaloid a pharmacologically-active substance (e.g., vinblastine and vincristine) obtained from the genus Vinca, which includes the periwinkles

VISCOSITY: Tendency of a fluid to resist internal flow without regard to its density.

Vision Development:- The ability of the mind to interpret what the eye sees.

Vision therapy: (orthopedics, vision training, eye exercises) a treatment process for the improvement of visual perception and/or coordination of the two eyes for efficient and comfortable binocular vision

Visual acuity: a measure of spatial resolution. the measure of the abiltiy to visually discriminate

Visual Acuity:- Keenness of vision - The size of object which the eye can see.Visual Closure:- The ability to recognize an entire figure from a part of the figure.

Visual Discrimination:- The ability to distinguish between similar-looking pictures.

Visual field: the area or extent of space visible to an eye in a given position of gaze

Visual Figure Ground:- The ability to recognize a figure when it is mixed-up with other figures.

Visual Form Consistency:- The ability to recognize a shape even though it has been rotated, flipped or made bigger or smaller.

Visual Memory:- The ability to recall the shape of a picture just seen and to recognize it again.

Visual Perception:- The ability of the mind to notice what the eye sees.

Visual Sequential Memory:- The ability to recall the sequence of a series of pictures.

Visual:- To do with seeing.

Visualization:- The ability to see things in the mind's eye.

Visual-Spatial Relationship:- The ability to recognize the spacing and orientation of one part of a figure to the other parts.

Vitreous: the gel-like transparent fluid substance filling the posterior four fifths of the globe between the crystalline lens and retina

VOC-ED: Vocational Education

VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOC): Used in coatings and paint because they evaporate very rapidly.

VOLATILITY: Measure of how quickly a substance forms a vapor at ordinary temperatures.

Voluntary School School owned by a voluntary body, usually religious, but receiving financial assistance from the local education authority. Classified as 'aided', 'controlled' or 'special agreement'.

Vomeronasal organ (VNO) A small sac on either side of the nasal septum, containing receptor cells that pick up chemical signals (pheromones) from other organisms of the same species.

vulnerary: an agent to increase the healing of wounds.

vulva (VUL vuh): a collective term used to describe the visible genital organs, extending from the mons pubis to the anus.


Walled - eyes:- see Strabismus.

WATER REACTIVE: Material that reacts with water to release a gas that is either flammable or presents a health hazard.

waxes: esters of fatty acids with high molecular weight alcohols.

Whole-Brain:- Using both sides of the Cerebrum.Work Experience An arrangement by which pupils, usually in their last year at school, may gain experience of being at work through employment (without pay) for a short period, often three weeks.

WORK AREA: A room or defined space in a workplace where hazardous chemicals are produce or used, and where employees are present.

WORKPLACE: An establishment at one geographical location containing one or more work areas.


xanthines: CNS stimulants with a purine type structure, e. g., caffeine.


YAG Laser: the YAG laser is an instrument that emits a short pulsed, high energy light beam that can be precisely focused to cut, vaporize, or fragment tissue.

Yin-Yan:- Oriental philosophy based on the complementary effect of opposites.

Yoga is among the oldest known systems of health practiced in the world today, and research into yoga practices has had a strong impact on the fields of stress reduction, mind/body medicine, and energy medicine. The physical postures, breathing exercises, and meditation practices of yoga have been proven to reduce stress, lower blood pressure, regulate heart rate, and even retard the aging process.


Z LIST: OSHA's Toxic and Hazardous Substances Tables Z-1, Z-2, and Z-3 of air contaminants, found in 29 CFR 1910.1000. These tables record PEL's, TWA's, and ceiling concentrations for the materials listed. Any material found on these tables is considered to be hazardous.

ZINC FUME FEVER:Caused by inhalation of zinc oxide fume characterized by flu-like symptoms, a metallic taste in the mouth, coughing, weakness, fatigue, muscular pain, and nausea, followed by fever and chills.